Home About us Current issue Back issues Submission Instructions Advertise Contact Login   

Search Article 
  
Advanced search 
 
Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
Users online: 1329 Home Bookmark this page Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font size Increase font size 
 

EDITORIAL Table of Contents   
Year : 1994  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 6-11
Monitoring of Glomerulonephritis


Oxford 0X8 6RD England, United Kingdom

Click here for correspondence address and email
 

   Abstract 

In addition to the standard biochemical measures we need better methods for monitoring of glomerulonephritides. A variety of new tests are now available. One has to be selective in one's choice. Attention has to be paid to means of assessing interstitial fibrosis and damage to the tubules of the kidneys.

Keywords: Monitoring, Glomerulonephritis, Nephrotic Syndrome, SLE.

How to cite this article:
Wardle E N. Monitoring of Glomerulonephritis. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 1994;5:6-11

How to cite this URL:
Wardle E N. Monitoring of Glomerulonephritis. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl [serial online] 1994 [cited 2020 Jun 7];5:6-11. Available from: http://www.sjkdt.org/text.asp?1994/5/1/6/41354

   Introduction Top


Although we all measure serum creatinine and 24-hour urine protein excretion values, one should be aware that there are now better refined methods for the monitoring of individual cases of glomerulonephritis (GN). When we look at the list of possibilities, we have to judge what we would like to have in relation to the work load and technical capability of one's laboratory service. [Table 1] lists the currently available techniques [1],[2],[3],[4],[5],[6],[7],[8],[9],10],[11],[12],[13],[14],[15],[16],[17],[18],[19],[20],[21],[22],[23],[24],[25],[26],[27],[28],[29],[30],[31],[32],[33] . Nobody would consider doing all these tests on their nephritis patients. Rather, one will select those tests that are most advantageous for monitoring the particular forms of nephritis that one has to deal with. Therefore the approach that I will use is correlation of the appropriate tests with each clinical form of nephritis.


   Minimal Change Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome Top


We see many children with minimal change idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS). Often the cause of this nephrotic syndrome is not known, but one should seek diligently for possible allergy to different forms of milk (cow, goat or camel), to eggs or even to pollens [34] . Hence it could be useful to use an elemental diet with gradual reintroduction of foods. In INS, a urine protein selectivity index of less than 0.2 will indicate responsiveness to corticosteroids. A non-selective index of more than 0.2 could indicate that the biopsy will show focal glomerulosclerosis (FGS). Mean-time measurement of serum interleukin (IL)-2 receptors will give an indication of disease activity [23] , as also will measure-ment of Fc €RII on B cells [25] , preferably using flow cytometry. It has been found that raised serum IgE levels and Fc €RII on B cells of such patients correlates with production of IL-4 by Th-2 like lymphocytes, i.e. lymphocytes that are primed for allergic antibody production. Unfortunately in tropical countries helminthes evoke similar responses. More research around this topic is required. Is it genetic or environmental predisposition to a Th-2 like response that predisposes to INS? Does that also apply in adults? Certainly we know that T cells of such patients are producing a permeability proteinuric lymphokine, that may be tumor necrosis factor (TNF) like [35] . We also know that in the active phase, the mononuclear cells of such patients are producing IL-1 and IL-2 [29] .


   Acute Post-Streptococcal Glomerulonephritis (APSGN) Top


These cases are common in the Middle East. 7-10 days after a Streptococcal sore throat, formation of circulating immune complexes and their subsequent deposition in the glomerular filters leads to an acute proliferative GN [36] . Within the first week of active nephritis the platelet counts are lowered [13] , platelet turnover is increased and platelet factor (PF)-4 can be shown to be localized in the glomeruli [37] . Complement levels are typically lowered in ASPGN, mesangiocapillary GN, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) glomerulonephritis and with the nephritis that accompanies endocarditis [4] . When there is only alternative pathway of complement activation, only C3 component is low. Normally in ASPGN, both C3 and C4 are lowered on account of alternative and classical pathway activation. One is always concerned that some cases of APSGN will progress to the nephrotic syndrome or to chronic renal failure with glomerulosclerosis. If it is present one may wish to identify "nephritic factor" at the early stage and may be to look for other forms of activated complement like iC3b, C3a des Arg, C5a or the C5b-9 complex [38] .

In the acute phase of APSGN radiofibrinogen catabolism will be increased, as a reflection of fibrin deposition in the renal glomeruli [17] . However, it should then become near-normal. An abnormal increase of turnover will persist in those cases with on-going glomerular damage [39] . Unfortunately this is a technique that is only taught in special centers. [Figure 1] indicates the form of graph of the plot of daily plasma labelled fibrinogen counts. In this case the patient had endocarditis causing acute proliferative GN [40] . One will note that the whole process was improved after the onset of heparin infusion.


   Systemic Lupus Nephritis Top


In this field, the new information is that one can measure the level of soluble TNF receptors (p55 or p75) by ELISA as an indicator of disease activity [26] . Alternatively, one can quantitate serum interferon (IFN)-y which correlates with the expression of major histocompatibility complex MHC class II antigens in the glomeruli and with their proliferation [27] . Yet one might have the same result by measuring serum IL-2 receptor values [27] . Also it has been shown that urinary IL-6 values, as measured by growth of an IL-6 dependent hybridoma MH60; BSF2, correlate with levels of anti- DNA antibody [30] . Furthermore, effective treatment lowers the excretion of IL-6.


   Glomerulonephritis Associated with Vasculitis Top


One has to recognize that many cases of vasculitis are drug induced. Penicillamine, hydrallazine, the thiazides, even frusemide and many other drugs can cause vasculitis with associated glomerulonephritis. Measurement of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) and characterization of its target antigen has now become the standard approach to differentiating polyarteritis with glomerulonephritis from Wegener's syndrome [11],[12] . The perinuclear pANCA is caused by antibodies to antigens that are drawn toward the nucleus of neutrophils during fixation. Those antigens include myeloperoxidase elastase and lactoferrin. The pANCA is positive in cases of microscopic polyarteritis. Conversely a cytoplasmic cANCA is commonly caused by antibodies to serine protease 3 of the azurophilic granules and that occurs in Wegener's syndrome. Since all these antigens are cationic, they are ideal for the induction of glomerulonephritis. A fall of ANCA titre does indicate successful treatment of these syndromes. Conversely a rise of titre will often indicate the need for a new form of therapy [41] .

One must also bear in mind that idiopathic crescentic nephritis is often associated with antibodies to the leucocyte lysosomal enzymes [42] . In fact an anti-myeloperoxidase ANCA can be an indicator of cellular crescents. Accumulation of neutrophils in the lungs during infection can release myeloperoxidase (MPO) that is an antigen that can cause proliferative nephritis [43] .


   IgA Nephropathy Top


Advances in this field are needed. This is the commonest nephritis in the world and we do not know its cause, although a respiratory tract virus might be suspected. Typically patients have recurrent sore throats and accompanying hematuria. In adults there may simply be progressive renal failure. Measurement of urinary red cell excretion and other means of monitoring are desirable. As is the case with SLE, increased urinary excretion of IL-6 has been claimed [31] . Some groups do not find this, but their technique or type of case may differ. Measurement of serum IFN-y could be better. As in SLE nephritis, the serum IFN-y relates to (MHC) class II antigens present in the glomeruli and thus to the local immune reaction [28] . In fact Ballardie and co-workers have related an increased percentage of blood monocytes expressing MHC class II antigens to disease activity [44] . Mononuclear cells of those patients show increased production of cytokines like Transforming Growth Factor TGF β .

There might be other approaches. Thus TGF β in urine could give an assessment of the glomerular sclerosing process [32] . Nakamura et al have shown that the monocytes of IgA nephropathy patients produce messenger RNA for the endothelin 1 and that the amount is increased according to the degree of proteinuria and histological grade of nephritis. One has to extract the RNA of mononuclear cells and then to use in situ hybridization using cDNA probes, specifically one for endothelin-1 [32] . A similar form of analysis can be used to quantitate platelet derived growth factor (PDGF)- β chain that is produced by blood mononuclear (non T) cells. Total RNA extracts from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells are spotted on a nylon filter and then there is hybridization of the spots with a cDNA probe for PDGF-β chain [33] . These findings must reflect the degree of monocytemacrophage activation in the glomeruli of IgA nephritis and accordingly the production of growth factors like PDGF-β .

There is not only sclerosis of the glomeruli but interstitial fibrosis in the medulla of the kidneys and damage to tubules. Hence an assay using SDS-PAGE for detection and quantitation of low molecular weight proteins in the urine can be useful [45] .


   Detecting and Monitoring Renal Interstitial Damage Top


For some time we have been aware that macrophage activity in inflammed glomeruli leads on to proliferative responses and ultimately glomerulosclerosis [46] . In all the glomerulonephritides a similar process may be taking place in the medulla of the kidneys [47],[48] . This means that, we have to add tests for proximal and distal tubule function to our investigations of conditions like membranous nephropathy [49] , which may or may not result in progressive renal disease. Therefore, we will be interested in techniques such as the urinary excretion of p2 microglobulin and urinary retinol binding protein [50] .

 
   References Top

1.Laurent J, Philippon C, Lagrue G, Laurent G, Weil B, Rostoker G. Proteinuria selectivity index: prognostic value in lipoid nephrosis, Nephron 1993;65:185-9.  Back to cited text no. 1    
2.Mitsuhashi H, Tsukada Y, Ono K, Yono S, Naruse T. Urine glycosaminoglycans and heparin sulfate excretions in adult patients with glomerular diseases. Clin Nephrology 1993;39:231-7.  Back to cited text no. 2    
3.Madaio MP, Harrington JT. Current concepts. The dignosis of acute glomerulonephritis. N Engl J Med 1983;309:1299-302.  Back to cited text no. 3    
4.Hebert LA, Cosio FG, Neff JC. Diagnostic significance of hypocomplementemia. Kidney Int 1991;39:811-21.  Back to cited text no. 4  [PUBMED]  
5.Schulze M, Donadio JV Jr, Pruchno CJ, et al. Elevated urinary excretion of the C5b-9 complex in membranous nephropathy.Kidney Int 1991;40: 533-8.  Back to cited text no. 5  [PUBMED]  
6.Coupes BM, Kon SP. Brenchley PEC, Short CD, Mallick NP. The temporal relationship between urinary C5b-9 and C3dg and Clinical parameters in human membranous nephropathy. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1993;8:397-401.  Back to cited text no. 6    
7.Pan C, Strife CF, McAdams AJ, West CD. Activated C3 (C3b) in the nephritic glomerulus. Pediatric Nephrol 1993;7:379-86.  Back to cited text no. 7    
8.Digeon M, Laver M, Riza J, Bach JF. Detection of circulating immune complexes in human sera by simplified assays with polyethylene glycol. J Immunol Methods 1985;16:165-83.  Back to cited text no. 8    
9.Gabriel A Jr, Agnello V. Detection of immune complexes. The use of radioimmunoassays with clq and monoclonal rheumatoid factor. J Clin Invest 1977;59:990-1001.  Back to cited text no. 9    
10.Schned ES, Inman RD, Parris TM, Kimberly RP, Redecha PB, Christian CL. Serial circulating immune complexes and monoclear phagocyte system function in infective endocarditis. J Lab Clin Med 1983;102:947-59.  Back to cited text no. 10  [PUBMED]  
11.Falk RJ, Jennette JC. Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic auto-antibodies with specificity for myeloperoxidase in patients with systemic vasculi-tis and idiopathic necrotizing and crescentic glomerulonephritis. N Engl J Med 1988;318: 1651-7.  Back to cited text no. 11  [PUBMED]  
12.Kallenberg CG, Mulder AH, Tervaert JW. Anti neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies: a still-growing class of autoantibodies in inflammatory disorders. Am J Med 1992;93:675-82.  Back to cited text no. 12  [PUBMED]  
13.Mezzano S, Kunick M, Olavarria F, Ardiles L,Aranda E, Mezzano D. Decreased platelet counts and decreased platelet serotonin in post-streptrococcal nephritis. Nephron 1994;(in press).  Back to cited text no. 13    
14.Satoh K, Imaizumi T, Yoshida H, et al. Plasma dehydro-thromboxane B2: a reliable indicator of platelet hyperfunction in patients with ischemic stroke. Acta Neurol Scand 1991;83:99-102.  Back to cited text no. 14  [PUBMED]  
15.Niwa T, Maeda K, Shibata M. Urinary prostaglandins and thromboxane in patients with chronic glomerulonephritis. Nephron 1987;46: 281-7.  Back to cited text no. 15  [PUBMED]  
16.Marello A, Chang S, Jacob A, et al. A chemiluminescent immunoassay for urinary thromboxane B2. Prostaglandins 1991;42:55-70.  Back to cited text no. 16    
17.Wardle EN, Kerr DNS. Radiofibrinogen cata-bolism and the nephritides. Br Med J 1973;42: 205-19.  Back to cited text no. 17    
18.Wardle EN. Anticoagulation in renal diseases: 20 years on and what is the outcome? Nephron 1986;44:81-4.   Back to cited text no. 18  [PUBMED]  
19.Hotta O, Taguma Y, Ooyama M, Yusa N,Nagura H. Analysis of CD14+ cells and CD56 +cells in urine using flow cytometry: A useful tool for monitoring disease activity of IgA nephropa-thy. Clin Nephrol 1993;39:289-94.  Back to cited text no. 19  [PUBMED]  
20.Ward MM, Doolay MA, Christensen VD, Pisetsky DS. The relationship between soluble interleukin-2 receptor levels and antidouble stranded DNA antibody levels in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. J Rheumatol 1991; 18: 235-40.  Back to cited text no. 20    
21.Tsai CY, Wu TH, Sun KH, Lin WM, Yu CL.Increased excretion of soluble interleukin-2 receptors and free light chain immunoglobulins in urine of patients with active lupus nephritis. Ann Rheum Dis 1992;51:168-72.  Back to cited text no. 21  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]
22.Parera M, Rivera F, Egido J, Campos A. The role of interleukin 2 (IL-2) and serum soluble IL-2 receptor cells in idiopathic IgA nephropathy. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 1992;63:196-9.   Back to cited text no. 22  [PUBMED]  
23.Mandreoli M, Beltrandi E, Casadei- Maldini M, Mancini R, Zucchelli A, Zucchelli P. Lymphocyte release of soluble IL-2 receptors in patients with minimal change nephropathy. Clin Nephrol 1992;37:177-82.  Back to cited text no. 23    
24.Schmitt WH, Heesen C, Csernok E, Rautmann A, Gross WL. Elevated serum levels of soluble interleukin-2 receptor in patients with Wegener's granulomatosis. Association with disease activity. Arthritis Rheum 1992;35:1088-96.  Back to cited text no. 24    
25.Cho BS, Lee CE, Pyun KH. Interleukin-4 (IL-4) activities and mRNA expression in childhood minimal change nephrotic syndrome. Kidney Int 1993;44:1182 (abs).  Back to cited text no. 25    
26.Aduka D, Wysenbeck I, Engelmann H, Cope A, et al. Correlation between serum levels of soluble TNF receptor and disease activity in SLE. Arthritis Rheumatism 1993;36:1111-20.  Back to cited text no. 26    
27.Yokoyama H, Takabatake T, Takaeda M, et al. Up-regulated MHC class-II expression and y-IFNand soluble IL-2R in lupus nephritis. Kidney Int 1992;42:755- 63.  Back to cited text no. 27  [PUBMED]  
28.Yokoyama H, Takaeda M, Wada T, et al. Intraglomerular expression of MHC class II and Ki-67 antigens and serum Yinterferon levels in IgA nephropathy.Nephron 1992;62:169-75.  Back to cited text no. 28  [PUBMED]  
29.Saxena S, Mittal A, Andal A. Pattern of Inter-leukins in minimal-change nephrotic syndrome of childhood. Nephron 1993;65:56-61.  Back to cited text no. 29  [PUBMED]  
30.Iwano M, Dohi K, Hirata E, et al. Urinary levels of interleukin 6 in patients with active lupus nephritis. Clin Nephrology 1993;40(l): 16-21.  Back to cited text no. 30    
31.Dohi K, Iwano M, Muraguchi A, et al. The prognostic significance of urinary interleukin 6 in IgA nephropathy. Clin Nephrology 1991;35: 1-5.   Back to cited text no. 31    
32.Nakamura T, Ebihara I, Shirato I, Fukui M, Tomino Y, Koide H. Endothelin-1m RNA expression by peripheral blood monocytes in IgA nephropathy. Lancet 1993;342:1147-8.  Back to cited text no. 32  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]
33.Nakamura T, Ebihara I, Nagaoka I, Tomino Y, Koide H. Activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells in IgA nephropathy express platelet-derived growth factor B-chain messenger RNA. J Lab Clin Med 1992;120:212-21.  Back to cited text no. 33  [PUBMED]  
34.Wardle EN. Cyclophosphamide pulse therapy in relapsing nephrotic syndrome. Nephron 1991;58:377.   Back to cited text no. 34  [PUBMED]  
35.Tomizawa S, Nagasawa N, Maruyama K, Shimabukuro N, Arai H, Kuroume T. Release of the vascular permeability factor in minimal change nephrotic syndrome is related to CD4 + lymphocytes. Nephron 1990;56:341-2.  Back to cited text no. 35  [PUBMED]  
36.Mezzano S, Olavarria F, Ardiles L, Lopez MI. Incidence of circulating immune complexes in patients with acute poststreptococcal glomerulone-phritis and in patients with streptococcal impetigo. Clin Nephrol 1986;26:61-5.   Back to cited text no. 36    
37.Mezzano S, Burgos ME, Ardiles L, Olavarria F et al. Glomerular localization of platelet factor 4 in streptococcal nephritis. Nephron 1992;61: 58-63.  Back to cited text no. 37    
38.Peakman M, Senaldi G, Vergagni D. Review: assessment of complement activation in clinical immunology laboratories: time for reappraisal? J Clin Pathol 1989;42:1018-25.  Back to cited text no. 38    
39.Wardle EN. Fibrinogen catabolism studies in patients with renal disease. Q J Med 1973;42: 205-19.  Back to cited text no. 39  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]
40.Wardle EN, Floyd M. Fibrinogen catabolism study of three patients with bacterial endocarditis and renal disease. Br Med J 1973;3:255-7.  Back to cited text no. 40  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]
41.Nolle B, Specks U, Ludemann J, Rohrbach MS, DeRemme RA, Gross WL. Anticytoplasmic auto- antibodies: their immunodiagnostic value in Wagener granulomatosis. Ann Intern Med 1989;lll:28-40.  Back to cited text no. 41    
42.Cohen Tervaert JW, Goldschmeding R, Elema JD, et al. Auto-antibodies against myeloid lysosomal enzymes in crescentic glomerulonephritis. Kidney Int 1990;37:799-806.   Back to cited text no. 42    
43.Arimura Y, Minoshima S, Kamiya Y, t al. Serum myeloperoxidase and serum cytokines in antimyeloperoxidase antibody-associated glomerulonephritis. Clin Nephrol 1993;40: 256-64.  Back to cited text no. 43    
44.De Caestecker MP, Bottomley M, Telfer BA,Hutchinson IV, Vose BM, Ballardie FW. Detection of abnormal peripheral blood mono-nuclear cell cytokine networks in human IgA nephrophathy. Kidney Int 1993;44:1298-308.  Back to cited text no. 44  [PUBMED]  
45.Woo KT, Lau YK, Lee GS, Wei SS, Lim CH. Pattern of proteinuria in IgA nephritis by SDS-PAGE: clinical significance. Clin Nephrol 1991;36: 6-11.  Back to cited text no. 45  [PUBMED]  
46.Main IW, Nikolic-Patterson DJ, Atkins RC. T cells and macrophages and their role in renal injury. Semin Nephrology 1992;12:395-407.  Back to cited text no. 46    
47.Nath KA, Salahudeen AK, Clark EC, Hostetter MK, Hostetter TH. Role of cellular metabolites in progressive renal injury. Kidney Int (suppl) 1992;38: S1O9- 13.  Back to cited text no. 47    
48.Fine LG, Ong AC, Norman JT. Mechanisms of tubulo-interstitial injury in progressive renal diseases. Eur J Clin Invest 1993;23:259-65.  Back to cited text no. 48  [PUBMED]  
49.Wehrmann M, Bohle A, Bogenschutz O, et al. Long-term prognosis of chronic idiopathic membra nous glomerulonephritis. An analysis of 334 cases with particular regard to tubulointerstitial.   Back to cited text no. 49    
50.Sesso R, Santos AP, Nishida SK, et al. Prediction of steroid responsiveness in the idiopathic nephro-tic syndrome using urinary retinol-binding protein and beta-2- microglobulin. Ann Intern Med 1QQ9-1 ifi-QflS-9.  Back to cited text no. 50    

Top
Correspondence Address:
E Nigel Wardle
MRCP 21 Common Road, North Leigh, Oxon 0X8 6RD, England
United Kingdom
Login to access the Email id


PMID: 18583755

Rights and Permissions


    Figures

  [Figure 1]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1]



 

Top
 
 
    Similar in PUBMED
    Search Pubmed for
    Search in Google Scholar for
  Related articles
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  
 


 
    Abstract
    Introduction
    Minimal Change I...
    Acute Post-Strep...
    Systemic Lupus N...
    Glomerulonephrit...
    IgA Nephropathy
    Detecting and Mo...
    References
    Article Figures
    Article Tables
 

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed2128    
    Printed73    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded194    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal