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Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
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COUNTRY REPORT Table of Contents   
Year : 1995  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 312-314
Dialysis and Transplantation in Sudan


1 Khartoum Dialysis and Transplantation Center, Khartoum, Sudan
2 Ibn Sina Hospital, Khartoum, Sudan
3 Soba University Hospital, Khartoum, Sudan

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   Abstract 

In this report we present the current status of the renal replacement therapy in Sudan. Sudan is a large country with 30 million inhabitants. Peritoneal Dialysis was started in 1968, while hemodialysis was started in 1973. At present, there are only 16 hemodialysis machines serving 56 patients in two centers in Sudan. There are also 15 peritoneal dialysis beds for 70 intermittent peritoneal dialysis patients in three centers. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis is not being practiced in Sudan. The first renal transplant was in 1974, and till now more than 30 transplants have been performed in two transplant centers. All the transplants have been from living donors. The scholars of Islam in Sudan oppose to donation from cadavers. There are 200 renal transplant patients being followed up in Sudan and the majority had their renal transplants abroad. We conclude that there is a tremendous shortage of renal services in Sudan. There are more efforts being made to improve these services.

Keywords: Hemodialysis, Transplantation, Sudan.

How to cite this article:
Suliman SM, Beliela MH, Hamza H. Dialysis and Transplantation in Sudan. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 1995;6:312-4

How to cite this URL:
Suliman SM, Beliela MH, Hamza H. Dialysis and Transplantation in Sudan. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl [serial online] 1995 [cited 2020 Jun 4];6:312-4. Available from: http://www.sjkdt.org/text.asp?1995/6/3/312/40669

   Introduction Top


Sudan is a large country in the central zone of Africa with an area of about one million square miles. It lies between latitudes 4 and 22 North and longitudes 22 and 38 East and has a population of about 30 million (census 1992) with a considerable number of refugees from the surrounding countries.

Chronic renal failure (CRF) is a common disease in Sudan. The estimated incidence for new cases is about 70-140/million inhabitants/year. The majority are young patients below 40 years of age and most die before reaching medical attention. [1] . This very high incidence of CRF might be due to the endemicity of many tropical diseases which are known to affect the kidneys in Sudan [2] . In addition there is a high incidence of renal stones (obstructive renal failure), and a high level of consanguinity making familial renal disease quite common. Health care in Sudan is directly supervised by the government. There are few private hospitals in the capital and some of the big cities. The number of working doctors within the country is decreasing rapidly due to immigration to other countries for economic reasons.


   History of Renal Replacement Therapy (RRT) in Sudan Top


A. Dialysis

RRT in Sudan started in 1968 with peritoneal dialysis (PD) in a small center. In 1970 a renal unit was opened in Khartoum Teaching Hospital with 2 beds for peri­toneal dialysis. Two haemodialysis machines were added in 1973.

Soba University Hospital started working in 1975 with two peritoneal dialysis beds and two haemodialysis machines. Later, Ibn Sina Hospital started in 1985 with two beds for peritoneal dialysis and two for haemo­dialysis as well. In the same year, Khartoum Kidney Dialysis and Transplant Center started with three haemodialysis machines.

At present, there are 10 working machines in the Khartoum Kidney Dialysis Center dialyzing 50 patients every week (two shifts, four days per week) [3] . There are two machines in Soba University Hospital dialyzing six patients a week. New machines in Ibn Sina Hospital and the Military Hospital are being added to the present setting. A center with two haemodialysis machines is set to start soon in Port Sudan [Figure - 1].

Peritoneal Dialysis

There are six PD beds in Khartoum Teaching Hospital, six PD beds in Soba University Hospital and three PD beds in Ibn Sina Hospital for emergency and chronic PD. There are about 70 patients on chronic PD. CAPD was tried in few patients but was abandoned due to high rate of peritonitis and high cost of treatment. So far there are no private dialysis centers in Sudan because cost is prohibitive. The estimation of cost of hemodialysis was reported elsewhere [4] .

B. Transplantation

The first Renal Transplant in Sudan was done in 1974. Up till now, a total of 30 transplants have been performed. The majority were performed from 1986-1991. All transplants were from living related donors. Renal transplant operations were done either in Ibn Sina Hospital or Soba Univer-sity Hospital by the same surgical team. Transplantation from cadaveric donors is still considered illegal and is facing a great opposition from Islamic Scholars in Sudan. At present, there are about 200 renal transplant recipients in the country. The majority had their operations done in Saudi Arabia, the rest were done in Egypt, Kuwait, Jordan, India, European countries and Sudan. [5] . There are 160 patients who received kidneys from living related donors, 30 from living unrelated donors and three had cadaveric transplants. 50% are on conventional (predisolone and azathioprine) immunosuppressive regimen and 50% are on cyclosporine plus one or two immunosuppressive drugs.


   Future Prospects Top


Due to the increasing number of CRF patients and the high cost of dialysis inside the country or transplantation outside, a national Center for Renal Diseases will be started in Ibn Sina Hospital in collaboration with other dialysis centers in Khartoum. This center will be responsible for improving the number of transplant operations done within the country as well as improving the available facilities in the hospitals and the working conditions of the medical staff. Efforts are being made to enlist the help of all persons inside and outside the country for the success of this project and a law allowing procurement of cadaver kidneys will be necessary in the long run to satisfy the increasing need of the CRF patients.

 
   References Top

1.Abboud OI. Thesis on chronic renal failure in Sudan, University of Khartoum. 1985.  Back to cited text no. 1    
2.Suliman SM. Thesis on glomerular changes associated with some tropical diseases in Sudan, University of Khartoum. 1991.  Back to cited text no. 2    
3.Osman EM, Abboud OI, Musa AM. Four years experience with hemodialysis at the Khartoum Dialysis and Kidney Transplant Center, Sudan. Saudi Kidney Dis Transplant Bull. 1992;3(3): 196-8.  Back to cited text no. 3    
4.ldrees A, Paul TT, Abu-Aisha H, Babiker MA, Kurpad R, Aswad S. A cost evaluation of hemodialysis in Ministry of Health Hospitals, Saudi Arabia: an NKF study. Saudi Kidney Dis Transplant Bull 1991;2(3):125-33.  Back to cited text no. 4    
5.Abboud OI, Osman EM, Suliman SM. Eight years study of Sudanese renal allograft recipients at Soba University Hospital. East Afr Med J 1989;66:358-61.  Back to cited text no. 5    

Top
Correspondence Address:
Salma Mohamed Suliman
Faculty of Medicine, P.O. Box 102, Khartoum
Sudan
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PMID: 18583742

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    Abstract
    Introduction
    History of Renal...
    Future Prospects
    References
    Article Figures
 

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