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Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE Table of Contents   
Year : 1995  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 396-399
Nephrolithiasis in Children and Adolescents in the South Western Region of Saudi Arabia


1 Department of Pediatrics, King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Urology, King Fahad Hospital, Al-Baha, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Saud Al-Rasheed
Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2925, Riyadh 11461
Saudi Arabia
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PMID: 18583746

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We reviewed 71 cases of children and adolescents with nephrolithiasis over a 9 year period (1982-1991). The mean age was 12.3 years. The male: female ratio was 2.5:1. Twelve patients (16.9%) had bilateral stones. Fifteen patients (21%) had documented urinary tract infection. Escherichia coli was the most common organism growing in the urine cultures. Five patients had metabolic abnormalities and four had genitourinary developmental anomalies. Of the 45 calculi recovered for analysis, 17 (37.8%) were predominantly calcium oxalate, 14 (31.1%) were mixed calcium oxalate and uric acid stones, two (4.4%) were uric acid, two (4.4%) were calcium phosphate, two (4.4%) were cystine and eight (17.8%) were struvite stones. Four patients passed their stones spontaneously. Forty-eight underwent open surgery, with complete stone clearance in 45 patients. Two patients needed nephrectomy, seven had their stones removed by endourological procedures, nine patients were referred to other centers for extra corporeal shock wave lithotripsy, while two did not need any intervention. After the initial hospitalization, 57 patients continued follow up for a mean period of 3.3 years. Of them sixteen patients (28.1%) had recurrence of stone disease. We conclude that renal stone disease in children in our area was not uncommon. The majority were calcium oxalate stones. The clinical manifestations were not specific. Open surgery was needed in the majority of patients. Due to significant recurrence rate, long term follow-up was essential. Follow up by a pediatric nephrologists and/or urologist would be advisable.


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