| Abstract|| |
We have studied 26 patients with rhabdomyolysis complicated with acute renal failure. The causes of rhabdomyolysis were dominated by paraphenylene diamine intoxication (PPD) (13 cases). The other etiologies were: crush syndrome (6 cases), eclampsia (3 cases), intense physical effort (1 case), butane intoxication (1 case), postural rhabdomyolysis induced by a prolonged surgical operation for pheochromocytoma (1 case). None of the patients had any past medical history of muscle or renal disease. Serum level of creatinine phosphokinase varied from 1200 to 5400 IU/L. The mean peak of serum creatinine level was 620 umol/1. Therapy included forced alkaline diuresis in all cases. Hemodialysis was required in 18 cases. All but eight patients survived. We conclude that rahabdomyolysis could be caused by intoxication, which was a prime cause in this study. Prevention may be possible with restriction of use of toxic products.
Keywords: Rhabdomyolysis, Acute renal failure, Paraphenylene diamine, Hemodialysis.
|How to cite this article:|
Fatihi E, Ramdani B, Benghanem MG, Hachim K, Zaid D. Rhabdomyolysis and Acute Renal Failure Secondary to Toxic Material Abuse in Morocco. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 1997;8:131-3
|How to cite this URL:|
Fatihi E, Ramdani B, Benghanem MG, Hachim K, Zaid D. Rhabdomyolysis and Acute Renal Failure Secondary to Toxic Material Abuse in Morocco. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl [serial online] 1997 [cited 2020 May 29];8:131-3. Available from: http://www.sjkdt.org/text.asp?1997/8/2/131/39385
| Introduction|| |
The first cases of rahabdomyolysis were described by Bywaters  in 1941. This disease is characterized by lysis of muscle cells, which leads to several metabolic disturbances including precipitation of myoglobin in renal tubules and acute renal failure (ARF). There are various causes of rahabdomyolysis, but trauma is a dominant factor  . The purpose of this study is to highlight the frequency PPD intoxication as a dominant cause of rhabdomyolysis in Morocco.
| Patients and Methods|| |
Twenty six cases of rahabdomyolysis with severe ARF in one center were studied during a ten-year period from December 1984 to December 1994. The ages of the patients ranged from 15 to 60 years with a mean of 37 years. The criteria for diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis inducing ARF were:
1) Increase of phosphokinase creatinine (PKC) over 1000 IU/L in the absence of cardiac ischemia.
2) Elevated blood urea niterogen more than 18 mmol/1.
3) Elevated serum creatinine more than 200 umol/1.
5) Metabolic acidosis.
6) Absence of signs of intravascular hemodialysis (hemoglobinuria, hyperbilirubinemia, methemoglobinemia).
For each patient, the medical history and physical examination were available for evaluation.
| Results|| |
None of the patients had any past medical history of muscle or renal disease. The clinical presentation of all patients was severe because of metabolic disturbances. All the patients had oligoanuria with dark urines and myalgia. Severe hyperkalemia with cardiac symptoms was observed in 18 cases (69%). Hypocalcemia (< 1.5 mmol/L) was observed in 3 cases (11.5%). Severe metabolic acidosis was observed in 20 cases (77%).
The causes of rhabdomyolysis were variable in this study. They were dominated by toxic etiologies, particularly paraphenylene diamine (PPD), as shown in [Table - 1]. Thirteen patients (50%) ingested this substance in suicidal attempts. In addition to the signs of rhabdomyolysis, the clinical presentation of PPD intoxication included oedema of neck and face, macroglossia and respiratory disturbances leading to distress. Blood levels of PPD were not determined, so correlation with the severity of clinical signs were not established. The second cause in this study was post-traumatic rhabdomyolysis (6 cases). The trauma was multiple, involving arms and thorax (crush syndrome).
Severe eclampsia leading to rhabdomyolysis was observed in three cases. After repeated and prolonged seizures, the pregnant women developed oligoanuria and elevation of CPK. There was one case of postural rhabdomyolysis induced by a prolonged surgical excision of pheochromocytoma. There was one case of rhabdomyolysis, which was probably due to viral infection. There was one case of Butane intoxication, and another case of Marathon racing related rhabdomyolysis.
Serum level of creatinine phosphokinase varied from 1200 to 5400 IU/L. The mean peak of serum creatinine level was 620 umol/1. Therapy included forced alkaline diuresis in all cases. Hemodialysis was required in 18 cases.
Eight (30.8%) patients died; Five because of extrarenal manifestations of crush syndrome, and three patients were due to nosocomial infection. Normal renal function was regained in the 18 surviving patients after a duration of 18 + 3 days, which concided with their biological and clinical recovery of rhabdomyolysis.
| Discussion|| |
The incidence of rhabdomyolysis as a cause of ARF is estimated to be between 5-10% in the literature , . In our experience, rhabdomyolysis contributes to 10% of etiologies of ARF  . Several authors have reported severe ARF induced by rhabdomyolysis ,, . As expected, the clinical presentation of the patients in our study was so severe it necessitated early hemodialysis.
Severe hypocalcemia, which may be explained by cell lysis resulting in hyperphosphatemia and formation of phosphatecalcium complexes, was observed in our study and by others  . Rhabdomyolysis can result from several causes. In our study, the toxic causes were frequent, while they are rare in literature  . This high incidence can be explained by the availability and common use of PPD in suicidal attempts.
In renal failure secondary to rhabdomyolysis, tubular necrosis is usually associated with the precipitation of myoglobin in the renal tubules , . However, we did not perform any renal biopsy in our study patients.
The majority of our patients (69%) required hemodialysis. This therapy is largely indicated in rhabdomyolysis complicated with ARF , . Other lines of therapy include forced diuresis by infusion of abundant liquids and alkali  .
We conclude that rhabdomyolysis can be caused by toxic materials including PPD. This study demonstrates the high frequency of intoxication by PPD in our country. ARF induced by rhabdomyolysis is usually severe and requires intensive therapy including dialysis.
| References|| |
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Service de Nephrologie-Hemodialysis, CHU Ibn Rochd, Casablanca
[Table - 1]