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Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
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COUNTRY REPORT Table of Contents   
Year : 1998  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 457-458
Renal Replacement Therapy in Bahrain

Department of Medicine, Salmania Medical Complex, Bahrain

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How to cite this article:
Al Arrayed S. Renal Replacement Therapy in Bahrain. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 1998;9:457-8

How to cite this URL:
Al Arrayed S. Renal Replacement Therapy in Bahrain. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl [serial online] 1998 [cited 2020 May 29];9:457-8. Available from: http://www.sjkdt.org/text.asp?1998/9/4/457/39106
Bahrain is a small Arab country with an area of 673 square kilometers and a population of 577,000. Bahrain enjoys high income per capita and has witnessed prosperity over the past thirty years, There has been a progressive development of health services, including renal replacement therapy.

The incidence of renal failure is estimated to be around 100 new cases per million inhabitants per year. The causes of renal failure are similar in pattern to the nearby countries [1],[2] however, diabetes mellitus forms close to 30% of them.

   Dialysis Services in Bahrain Top

Only hemodialysis is available in Bahrain. Peritoneal dialysis has not been attempted yet for chronic renal replacement therapy.

The first hemodialysis was performed in Na'am hospital in 1971. At present, there are two hemodialysis centers in the country equipped with 45 modern dialysis machines.

Currently, there are 120 hemodialysis patients receiving chronic dialysis therapy in Bahrain. Of them, 85% are dialyzed against bicarbonate dialysate. The average dialysis treatment is nine hours per patient per week using arteriovenous fistula as the most common vascular access for dialysis therapy.

All the patients receive erythropoietin as a replacement therapy for anemia related to renal failure.

There are only 10% of hemodialysis patients who have positive anti-hepatitis C antibodies and 3% with positive hepatitis B antigenemia. These relatively low percentages of viral hepatitis infection may be due to the small number of dialysis centers and treated patients, which permit better infection-control measures to be applied effectively.

The overall mortality of patients on hemodialysis is around 8-10% annually. Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death in this population.

   Renal Transplantation in Bahrain Top

Patients with end-stage renal failure used to go abroad seeking renal transplantation. Currently, there are more than 69 patients who had their renal transplants abroad and are being followed-up in Bahrain.

To start a program of transplantation in order to reach self-sufficiency, efforts were put together in Bahrain defense hospital for the first renal transplant. In September 1995, the first operation was performed using a living related donor. This was followed by five more operations, and then the program was shifted to Salmania Medical Complex, Ministry of Health. Up to September 1998, there have bee 38 living related renal transplants. The are two cadaveric renal transplants, which were done outside Bahrain.

In June 1998, the Amen Degree number 18 was issued regarding organ donation and transplantation from living related and cadaveric donors.

Ministry of Health, Bahrain has recently completed a project plan for Nephrology and kidney transplant center, which hopefully, will be ready by the end of 1999.

Cyclosporine-based immunosuppressive therapy is used in all patients to maintain their renal transplants post operatively. The overall mortality of the transplanted patients is around 3% annually and this is mostly due to sepsis and/or cardiovascular disease.

   Prospective Top

Bahrain has already started active organ transplantation services and organizing the efforts to promote organ donation and transplantation.

Furthermore, there are ongoing efforts in Bahrain to establish the continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) as a method of renal replacement therapy in the late 1998.

   References Top

1.Al-Reshaid K. Renal replacementtherapy in Kuwait. Saudi J Kidney DisTransplant 1994;5(4):493-7.  Back to cited text no. 1    
2.Rashed A, Abboud 0, Addasi A, Taha M,El Sayed M, Ashour A. Acute renal failure: six months pilot study in Qatar. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transplant 1998;9 (3):298-300.  Back to cited text no. 2    

Correspondence Address:
Sameer Al Arrayed
Department of Medicine, Salmania Medical Complex, P.O.Box 12
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PMID: 18408318

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