| Abstract|| |
To measure the prevalence of the most common causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) among patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD), we studied the records of 248 hemodialysis patients in the Jeddah Kidney Center in December 2000. We found that the majority of cases of ESRD were of unknown etiology (42.7%). Hypertension was the most common known cause (36.3%) followed by diabetes mellitus (14.5%). We conclude that hypertension and diabetes constitute the most frequently known causes of ESRD among hemodialyzed (HD) patients in the Jeddah region.
Keywords: Hypertension, Diabetes mellitus, End-Stage Renal Disease, Hemodialysis, Jeddah.
|How to cite this article:|
Al-Jiffri AY, Fadag RB. Profile of Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) in Jeddah. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2003;14:536-8
|How to cite this URL:|
Al-Jiffri AY, Fadag RB. Profile of Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) in Jeddah. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl [serial online] 2003 [cited 2019 Aug 23];14:536-8. Available from: http://www.sjkdt.org/text.asp?2003/14/4/536/32995
| Introduction|| |
ESRD causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide.  In Saudi Arabia, it appears to be one of the major medical problems.  This is perhaps attributable to environmental factors (temperature, humidity, rainfall); biological factors (infection, parasites); and socioeconomic conditions (urban and rural settlements, marital status, education, occupation).  In developed countries such as the USA, Europe, and Japan, the leading cause of ESRD has become diabetic nephropathy, particularly type II diabetes. , Though less common in other countries, the percentage of ESRD patients with diabetes and hypertension is increasing. ,
In this study we attempt to assess the major causes of ESRD in our center .
| Methods|| |
We studied the records of 248 patients on chronic dialysis in the Jeddeh Kidney Center, King Fahd Hospital Jeddah-Saudi Arabia, which is the referral dialysis center for most of the Western region in Saudi Arabia. A patient questionnaire was developed to collect data from the sample. Some of the data was collected by interview with patients.
| Results|| |
A total of 248 patients were studied. The age of the patients ranged from 8-103 years, with a mean of 44 ± 15.6 years. There was predominance of Saudi patients (67.3%) to non-Saudis (32.7%) and males (60%) to females (40%).
The duration on hemodialysis ranged from 2-240 months with a mean of 42 months. The etiology of ESRD could not be determined in 106 patients (42.7%) due to late referrals. Hypertension was the most frequent cause among patients with known etiology comprising 36.3% followed by diabetes mellitus (14.5%), [Table - 1].
| Discussion|| |
The study shows that there was predominance of males (60.1%) over females (39.9%) among hemodialysis patients, which is in accordance with the results of other studies conducted in Saudi Arabia.  as well as in other countries, including India (67.8% males and 32.2% females),  Japan (54.4% males and 45.6% females),  Qatar (54.5% males and 45.5% females),  Sudan (73.9% males and 26.1% females)  and Morocco (59% males and 41% females). 
This study also showed that there was predominance of hemodialyzed Saudi patients (67.3%) over non-Saudi patients (32.7%). This is comparable to the studies carried out in Samtah (Gizan)  where Saudi patients comprised only 75.1%. In Madinah,  71.3% were Saudis. Almost the same distribution of nationalities was recognized among the general population of Saudi Arabia where Saudis comprise 73%.  This indicates that there was proportional representation for the two groups at the hemodialysis center, which is similar to that in the general population. The differences in percentages among the sets of study data might be attributed to the higher proportion of non-Saudis in the population of Jeddah as compared to other regions in the Kingdom. 
The study shows that the most of ESRD patients at the hemodialysis center have unknown etiology (42.7%). A similar high percentage was also reported in Taif (KSA) (43.5%)  and Sudan (52%).  The European dialysis and transplantation association survey showed that unknown etiology was also high in Egypt, Algeria, Tunisia, Turkey, and Libya.  The most probable reason for this is the late presentation of patients in these countries, when diagnostic exploration is no longer possible. The most frequent known cause in the current study is hypertension (36.3%), which is emphasized by a study conducted in Gassim (KSA), which showed that systemic hypertension was the most common cause of ESRD in the region (47%).  In the United States, the Renal Diseases Annual Data Report of 1996 showed that hypertension was the second leading cause of ESRD accounting for 30.3%.  The second leading known cause of ESRD in our study was diabetes mellitus (type I & II) (14.5%); this was approximately the same as in studies carried out in Al-Hada hospital (KSA) (13.74%),  Kuwait (15%)  and Europe (13.1%). 
In conclusion, our study indicates that hypertension constitutes the most frequent known cause of ESRD (36.3%) followed by diabetes (14.5%) among hemodialyzed (HD) patients in the Jeddah region.
| Acknowledgment|| |
The authors would like to express their thanks to the staff of the Jeddah Kidney Center.
| References|| |
|1.||Al-Homrany M, Abolfotoh M. Incidence of treated end-stage renal disease in Asir region. Southern Saudi Arabia. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transplant 1998;9(4):425-9. |
|2.||Akhtar M, Qunibi W, Saadi T, Furayh O, Sanjad S, Al-Sabban E. Spectrum of renal disease in Saudi Arabia. Ann Saudi Med 1990;10(1):37-44. |
|3.||Ibrahim MA, Kordy MN. End-stage renal disease (ESRD) in Saudi Arabia. Asia Pac J Public Health 1992-93;6(3):140-5. |
|4.||Odoni G, Ritz E. Diabetic nephropathy-what have we learned in the last three decades? J Nephrol 1999;12(Suppl 2):S120-4. [PUBMED] |
|5.||Rossing P. Risk factors in the progression of diabetic nephropathies. Ugeskr Laeger 2000;162(38):5057-61. |
|6.||Al-Muhanna FA, Saeed I, Al-Muelo S, Larbi E, Rubaish A. Disease profile, complications and outcome in patients on maintenance haemodialysis at King Fahd University Hospital, Saudi Arabia. East Afr Med J 1999;76(12):664-7. |
|7.||Mitwalli AH, Al-Swailem A, Aziz KMS, et al. The incidence of end-stage renal disease in two regions of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transplant 1995;6(3): 280-5. |
|8.||Mittal S, Kher V, Gulati S, Agarwal LK, Arora P. Chronic renal failure in India. Ren Fail 1997;19(6):763-70. |
|9.||Iseki K, Iseki C, Ikemiya Y, Fukiyama K. Risk of developing end-stage renal disease in a cohort of mass screening. Kidney Int 1996;49(3):800-5. |
|10.||Rashid A, Abboud O, Taha M, El-Sayed M. Renal replacement therapy in Qatar. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transplant 1998;9(1):36-9. |
|11.||Suliman S, Fessaha S, El Sadig M, et al. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in hemodialysis patients in Sudan. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transplant 1995;6(2):154-6. |
|12.||Amal B. Renal replacement therapy in Morocco. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transplant 1999;10(1):66-8. |
|13.||Subramanian PT, Jamal A, Shaha MY. Hemodialysis utilization in a single incenter dialysis unit, in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transplant 2001;12(1):64-74. |
|14.||Statistical yearbook. Central Department of Statistics, Ministry of Finance and National Economy, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. 1992. |
|15.||Al-Khader AA. Hepatitis C infection: the subject of this issue. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transplant 1995;6(2):115-7. |
|16.||Hussien M, Mooij J, Roujouleh H, Bakir N. End-stage renal disease in Saudi Arabia: a single center study. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transplant 1991;2(2):79-84. |
|17.||Soyannwo MA, Khan N, Kommajosyula S, et al. Hepatitis C antibodies in haemodialysis and pattern of end-stage renal failure in Gassim, Saudi Arabia. Afr J Med Med Sci 1996;25(1):13-22. |
|18.||Mani MK. The etiology of end-stage renal disease: its implications for the patient and the profession. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transplant 1997;8(4):405-9. |
|19.||El-Reshaid K. Renal replacement therapy in Kuwait. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transplant 1994;5(4):493-7. |
Abdullah Mohammed Y Al-Jiffri
King Fahd Armed Forces Hospital, P.O.Box 40332, Jeddah-21499
[Table - 1]