Home About us Current issue Back issues Submission Instructions Advertise Contact Login   

Search Article 
  
Advanced search 
 
Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
Users online: 2208 Home Bookmark this page Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font size Increase font size 
 

RENAL DATA FROM THE ASIA - AFRICA Table of Contents   
Year : 2007  |  Volume : 18  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 277-281
Ultrasound Assessment of Renal Size in Healthy Term Neonates: A Report from Benin City, Nigeria


1 Department of Radiology, University of Benin Teaching Hospital Benin -City, Nigeria
2 Department of Child Health, University of Benin Teaching Hospital Benin -City, Nigeria

Click here for correspondence address and email
 

   Abstract 

Knowledge of the normal range of renal size is useful in appreciating variations that may occur due to morbidities. Ultrasound is a simple and safe method of evaluating renal sizes in all age groups. This is a prospective study of the assessment of renal dimensions in apparently healthy neonates at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. One hundred and fifty neonates were studied, including eighty-five males (56.7%), and sixty-five females (43.3%). The mean length of the right kidney was 44.9 ± 3.2 mm and the mean length of the left kidney was 44.4 ± 3.5 mm. The difference in renal length between the two sides was not statistically significant. The height and weight of the child showed strong correlation with longitudinal renal measurements. The study also showed the independence of neonatal renal sizes on gender and race.

Keywords: Neonates, Renal Size, Ultrasound, Benin City, Nigeria.

How to cite this article:
Adeyekun A A, Ibadin M O, Omoigberale A I. Ultrasound Assessment of Renal Size in Healthy Term Neonates: A Report from Benin City, Nigeria. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2007;18:277-81

How to cite this URL:
Adeyekun A A, Ibadin M O, Omoigberale A I. Ultrasound Assessment of Renal Size in Healthy Term Neonates: A Report from Benin City, Nigeria. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl [serial online] 2007 [cited 2020 May 26];18:277-81. Available from: http://www.sjkdt.org/text.asp?2007/18/2/277/32326

   Introduction Top


Ultrasound is an important imaging modality for the renal tract in children. It is well tolerated and does not involve the use of ionizing radiation or intravenous contrast medium. [1] In the newborns and infants, ultrasound is useful for follow-up in pre­natally detected fetal hydronephrosis, [2],[3] and suspected renal tract malformations suggested by clinical findings of vertebral or colonic abnormalities. In older infants and children, renal sonography may be part of the work-up for urinary tract infection, enuresis, diuresis or flank masses. [1] Other indications include possible obstructive uro­pathy, ambiguous genitalia, renal failure, and localization for closed renal biopsy.

During renal ultrasonography, one of the parameters assessed is renal size. Renal size can change in a number of morbidities and, therefore, its assessment can aid evaluation. However, this requires establishment of normal dimensions of the kidneys in various age brackets in order to appreciate deviations or alterations from normal. There are reports of some studies on renal sizes in neonates, infants and children among Caucasians, [4],[5],[6],[7] and Asians.[8] However, reports of similar studies are rare among Africans, especially Nigerians.

The rationale for this study, therefore, is to determine the normal range of renal size in apparently healthy term Nigerian neonates, by means of ultrasonography. This would facilitate comparison with values contained in other reports and decipher, if any, racial differences in term neonates.


   Patients and Methods Top


This study was conducted among full-term neonates (37 or more completed gestational weeks) delivered at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH), between January and December 2004. The babies were clinically examined and then enrolled. Those with a history of birth asphyxia, or whose mothers had oligohydramnios (from birth records or ultrasound reports) - events known to influence renal size - were excluded. Another exclusion criterion was palpable abdominal mass (es), since the majority of the abdominal masses in childhood are of renal origin.[9] Parental consent was obtained in each case. The birth weight and length (height) of each baby selected was recorded and the body mass index calculated according to the Du Bois formula. [10] A total of 150 (One hundred and fifty) neonates were included in the study.

A real time ultrasound scanner with a 6.5 MHz curvilinear probe (SONACE: Medison Co: South Korea) was used. The babies were scanned while held in their mothers' arms or lap or across the shoulder. Scanning was done in both supine and prone positions. Each kidney was examined in its longitudinal axis from which the bipolar length (L), and width (W) were measured in millimeters (mm). At the same point, with the transducer now transversely oriented, a third measurement (also in millimeters) was taken to obtain the antero-posterior diameter (AP) or thickness. The ultrasound machine automatically calculated the area (mm 2 ) and volume (cm 3 ), using the formula for an ellipse. [11]

Data handling and statistics was done using SPSS software, (version 11.0). Continuous variables were expressed as a mean ± standard deviation (SD). Student's t-test (paired and unpaired observation) was used where appropriate. The total renal length (TRL), Width (TRW), Thickness (TRT), Area (TRA) and Volume (TRV) were also calculated for both kidneys, in both supine and prone positions.

The measured values were then correlated with birth weight, body length (height) and body mass index. A p value of < 0.05 was considered significant.


   Results Top


A total of 150 neonates were studied, which comprised 85 males (56.7%) and 65 females (43.3%).

The right kidney (mean right kidney length) was found to be slightly longer than the left (44.9 ± 3.2 mm vs. 44.4 ± 3.5 mm). The difference was, however, not statistically significant.

The total renal length (TRL), total renal area (TRA), and total renal volume (TRV) showed significant correlation with weight and height, regardless of the scanning position.

[Table - 1][Table - 2] as well as [Figure - 1],[Figure - 2],[Figure - 3],[Figure - 4] summarize the data on the mean renal size values for both kidneys and show scatter grams for the measured parameters for each kidney in relation to weight and height.


   Discussion Top


Ultrasound is preferred to urography for assessment of renal size since it is free of the radiographic magnification and contrast­induced increase in renal size associated with the latter. [12],[13] In newborns and growing children, there is the added need to minimize exposure to ionizing radiation and intravenous contact agents.[1] Studies on renal size in neonates abound in the foreign literature, [4],[5],[6],[7],[8] but this cannot be said for the Nigerian environment. This study found the right kidney to be longer than the left, in contrast with the finding of the left being longer than the right, according the study conducted by Oviasu and Benka - Coker on ultrasonic assessment of renal size in healthy Nigerian adults. [14]

In this study, we found the mean renal length to be 44.5 ± 3.7 mm and 44.8 ± 3.2 mm for male and female neonates respectively. This difference was not statistically significant. Lotus and others made a similar observation of the independence of renal length of gender in their study conducted on Chinese children.[8] Komus and colleagues, in their study on Turkish children, also noted a similar trend. [15] It is pertinent to note that the mean value for renal length obtained in our study is similar to those obtained by Mesrobian and co-workers [6] in their study on Western children, perhaps confirming the independence of renal dimen­sions in term newborns on race. Lotus and colleagues also noted similar observations. [8]

This study found a significant correlation of linear renal measurements (TRL, TRW, TRA, TRV) with birth weights and heights of the subjects studied. These agree with the findings of Komus and others in Turkey [15] from their ultrasound assessment of normal liver, spleen and kidney dimensions in neonates, infants, and children. Measurements taken in the prone position were shown to be significantly higher than those taken in the supine position, suggesting the influence of subject's position on the measurement of renal size. De Sanctis and colleagues made a similar observation in their study on the effect of patient position on sonographic measurement of renal sizes in neonates. [16]


   Conclusion Top


This study has established a norm for renal sizes in healthy Nigerian neonates. It found a significant correlation of renal size with birth weight and height/body length. These two body parameters should be considered as the best correlates with longitudinal renal measurements.

 
   References Top

1.Reid BS. Pediatric abdominal sonography. In: Kawamura DM(ed). Diagnostic medical sonography - a guide to clinical practice, philadelphia Lippincott; 1997: 601-26.  Back to cited text no. 1    
2.Docimo SG, Silver RI. Renal ultrasonography in newborn with prenatally detected hydro­nephrosis; why wait? J Urol 1997; 157: 1387-9.  Back to cited text no. 2    
3.Laing FC, Burke VD, Wing VW, et al. Postpartum evaluation of fetal hydro­nephrosis: optimal timing for follow up sonography. Radiology 1984;152:423-4.  Back to cited text no. 3    
4.Currarino G, Williams B, Dana K. Kidney length correlated with age: normal values in children. Radiology 1984; 150: 703-4.  Back to cited text no. 4    
5.Rosenbaum DM, Korngold E, Teele RL. Sonographic assessment of renal length in normal children. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1984; 142: 467-9.  Back to cited text no. 5    
6.Mesrobian HG, Laud PW, Todd E, Gregg DC. The normal kidney growth rate during year 1 of life is variable and age dependent. J Urol 1998; 160(3):989-93.  Back to cited text no. 6    
7.Han BK, Babcock DS. Sonographic measure­ments and appearance of normal kidneys in children. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1985;145: 611-6.  Back to cited text no. 7    
8.Lotus WK, Gent RJ, LeQuesne GW, Metreweli C. Renal length in Chinese children: sonographic measurement and comparison with western data. J Clin Ultrasound 1998; 26 (7): 349-52.  Back to cited text no. 8    
9.Thomas EK, Owens MC. The pediatric abdomen. In: Sutton D (ed). A Textbook of Radiology and Imaging. London. Churchill Livingstone. 2003; 874.  Back to cited text no. 9    
10.Dubois D, Dubois EF. A formula to estimate the approximate body surface area if height and weight were known. Arch Intern Med 1916; 17: 863-71.  Back to cited text no. 10    
11.Emamian SA, Nielsen MB, Pederson JF Ytte L. Kidney dimensions at sonography: correla­tion with age, sex, and habitus in 665 adult volunteers. Am J Roentgenol 1993; 160: 83-6.  Back to cited text no. 11    
12.Odita JC, Ugbodaga CI. Roentgenologic estimation of kidney size in adult Nigerians. Trop Geogr Med 1982; 34: 177-81.  Back to cited text no. 12    
13.Lewis E, Ritchie WG. A simple ultrasonic method for assessing renal size. J Clin Ultrasound 1980; 8: 417-2.  Back to cited text no. 13    
14.Oviasu E, Benka Coker LB. Renal size in healthy Nigerian adults. An ultrasonographic assessment. Nig Med J 1998; 34(1): 20-22.  Back to cited text no. 14    
15.Konus O L, Ozdemir A, Akkaya A, et al. Normal liver, spleen and kidney dimensions in neonates, infants, and children: evaluation with sonography. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1998; 171 (6): 1693-98.  Back to cited text no. 15    
16.De Sanctis JT, Connolly SA, Bramson RT. Effect of patient position on sonographically measured renal length in neonates, infants and children. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1998; 170: 1381-3.  Back to cited text no. 16    

Top
Correspondence Address:
A A Adeyekun
Department of Radiology, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, PMB 1111 Benin -City
Nigeria
Login to access the Email id


PMID: 17496411

Rights and Permissions


    Figures

  [Figure - 1], [Figure - 2], [Figure - 3], [Figure - 4]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table - 1], [Table - 2]

This article has been cited by
1 Are renal volumes measured by magnetic resonance imaging and three-dimensional ultrasound in the term neonate comparable?
Kent, A.L. and Jyoti, R. and Robertson, C. and Gonsalves, L. and Meskell, S. and Shadbolt, B. and Falk, M.C.
Pediatric Nephrology. 2010; 25(5): 913-918
[Pubmed]



 

Top
 
 
    Similar in PUBMED
    Search Pubmed for
    Search in Google Scholar for
  Related articles
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  
 


 
    Abstract
    Introduction
    Patients and Methods
    Results
    Discussion
    Conclusion
    References
    Article Figures
    Article Tables
 

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed10151    
    Printed100    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded662    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 1    

Recommend this journal