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Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE Table of Contents   
Year : 2009  |  Volume : 20  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 77-85
Microvascular and macrovascular complications in diabetic nephropathy patients referred to nephrology clinic


Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, King Saud University Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Jamal S Al-Wakeel
Nephrology Unit, Department of Medicine, King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh
Saudi Arabia
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PMID: 19112222

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To evaluate the diabetic complications and fate of diabetic nephropathy in Saudi population, we studied 184 diabetic nephropathy (DN) patients who were referred to nephrology clinic of King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from January 2003-June 2006. The patients had mean age of 61.9 ± 13.1 years, included 128 (69.6%) males, and were followed up for a mean period of 10.2 ± 1.5 years. The mean duration of diabetes mellitus (DM) was 19.5 ± 5.8 years, and duration of nephropathy was 7.7 ± 3.3 years. Family history of DN was documented in 52 (28.2%) patients. At initial visit, the mean systolic blood pressure was 164 ± 14.5 mmHg, the mean diastolic blood pressure was 97.9 ± 10.4 mmHg. Thirty­seven (20%) patients had normal BMI, 88 (48%) were overweight, while 55 (30%) were obese. Mean creatinine clearance was 51.7 ± 26.3 mL/min, 24 hrs urinary proteins 1.99 ± 2.48 gm/day, HbA1C 9.2 ± 1.8 %, triglyceride 2.1 ± 1.3 mmol/L, and cholesterol 5.17 ± 1.54 mmol/L. Diabetic complications included angiography proven coronary artery disease in 106 (57.6 %) patients, stroke in 21 (11.4%), myocardial infarction (MI) in 27(14.6%), angina in 87 (47.2 %), retinopathy in 82 (44.5%), Blindness in 3 (1.6%), peripheral vascular disease in 121 (65.7%), Neuropathy in 123 (66.8%), hypertension in178 (96.7%), diabetic foot in 25 (13.5%), Amputation in 10 (5.4%), and end-stage renal disease in 70 (38%). Total of 13 (7.05%) patients died in the hospital. Thirty-seven percent of patients developed > 6 concomitant complications. 28% developed 5, 17% developed 4, and the rest developed < 3. DN was relatively refractory to therapy and progressive; 123 (66.8%) patients doubled their serum creatinine in 3.59 ± 2.88 years, 32 (17.3%) maintained stable renal function, 136 (73.6 %) deteriorated, and 12 (6.52%) improved. we conclude that the prevalence of diabetic complications is high among Saudi patients, and many had multiple complications. Baseline creatinine clearance and proteinuria, high systolic blood pressure, advanced age, and longer duration of diabetes were the most significant risk factors for developing complications.


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