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Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
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LETTER TO THE EDITOR Table of Contents   
Year : 2010  |  Volume : 21  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 1135-1136
A comparison between urinary bladder temperature and rectal, axillary and oral temperatures following kidney transplantation


Department of Urology and Nephrology, Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Science, Mashhad, Iran

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Date of Web Publication4-Nov-2010
 

How to cite this article:
Ahmadnia H, Mojahedi MJ, Dalooee MK, Ghanbarizadeh SR. A comparison between urinary bladder temperature and rectal, axillary and oral temperatures following kidney transplantation. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2010;21:1135-6

How to cite this URL:
Ahmadnia H, Mojahedi MJ, Dalooee MK, Ghanbarizadeh SR. A comparison between urinary bladder temperature and rectal, axillary and oral temperatures following kidney transplantation. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl [serial online] 2010 [cited 2019 Nov 22];21:1135-6. Available from: http://www.sjkdt.org/text.asp?2010/21/6/1135/72307
To the Editor,

Measurement of temperature or core tempe­rature as a part of vital signs is particularly important in the critical care patient. Frequent changes in temperature have led to the use of rectal probes for continuous monitoring of hypo­thermic or hyperthermic patients. [1]

Patients with indwelling Foley catheter with a specialized thermo probe can have continuous monitoring of body temperature. [2]

In this study, we compared the temperatures of urinary bladder, rectum, axilla and mouth in patients who underwent kidney transplantation.

Twenty patients (14 males and mean age 34 years) admitted for kidney transplantation sur­gery were evaluated. The patients who were catheterized with Foley urinary catheter with thermistor probe (Sensor 2 way silicone catheter, Rusch, Germany) during and after surgical procedure had their intra-vesical temperatures re­corded.

Oral, axillary and intra-vesical temperatures were recorded at two hours interval and rectal temperature was recorded every 12 hours, for four days postoperatively.

Oral, axillary and rectal temperatures were measured using conventional thermometer.

Then, the recorded data were analyzed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) computer package. In this study, the tempera­ture measurement by intravesical thermo probe was no better than rectal, oral or axillary tem­peratures.

The mean temperatures recorded from mouth, axilla, rectum and bladder over a period of 4 days were 36.91 ± 0.3ºC, 36.6 ± 0.32ºC, 37.25 ± 0.35ºC, 37.8 ± 0.3ºC, respectively.

The repeated measurement test showed sig­nificant differences between mean temperature in four methods (χ2 = 24.58, P < 0.001).

The correlation between oral and intravesical temperature (r = 0.914, P < 0.001), axillary and intravesical temperature (r = 0.936, P < 0.001), rectal and intravesical temperature (r = 0.927, P < 0.001) was linear and direct.

Body temperature being an important part of monitoring of critically ill patients has been studied by several authors. Fulbrook suggested that axillary temperature compared favorably with pulmonary artery (PA) temperature and is the site of choice in the absence of invasive catheters. [3] The rectal site is widely assumed most closely to reflect core temperature. Inac­curate measurement, however, may result due to the rectal wall insulation, especially during rapid re-warming of hypothermic patients and in patients with constipation. [4],[5]

Bladder temperature measured using thermis­tor or thermocouple within an indwelling ca­theter was found to be more accurate than or at least similar to rectal temperature. [6],[7] We did not find bladder temperature to be significantly better than that found by other methods. In pa­tients where continuous temperature monito­ring is needed, in the absence of pulmonary artery catheters, bladder temperature monito­ring could provide a continuous display of core temperature.[8]

Although bladder temperature is not consi­dered as a true measure of core temperature, it is detected later than the changes in esophageal and nasopharyngeal temperatures (closer to core temperature) but earlier than rectal and skin temperature respond. [9]

In conclusion, due to its ease, catheterization of bladder with a temperature monitoring probe in critically ill patients requiring continuous dis­play of core temperature provides an alterna­tive method. It, however, seems to be of simi­lar efficacy to axillary and rectal temperature monitoring.


   Acknowledgment Top


Special thanks to Vice President of research in MUMS for the great support.

 
   References Top

1.Maxton FJ, Justin L, Gillies D. Estimating core temperature in infants and children after car­diac surgery: A comparison of six methods. J Adv Nurs 2004;45(2):214-22.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Jain P, Parada JP, David A, Smith LG. Overuse of the indwelling urinary tract catheter in hospitalized medical patients. Arch Intern Med 1995;155:1425-29.  Back to cited text no. 2
[PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
3.Fulbrook P. Core temperature measurement in adults: A literature review. J Adv Nurs 1993; 18(9):1451-60.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Heidenreich T, Giuffre M, Doorley J. Tempe­rature and temperature measurement often in­duced hypothermia. Nurs Res 1992;41(5):296­300.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Hotlzclaw BJ. New trends in thermometry for the patient in the ICU. Crit Care Nurs Q 1998;21(3):12-25.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.Sladen RN. Thermal regulation in anesthesia and surgery. Refresher courses. Anesthesiol 1991;19:(7):165-87.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Fallis WM. Monitoring urinary bladder tempe­rature in the intensive care unit: State of the sciences. Am J Crit Care 2002;11(1):38-45.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Nierman DM. Core temperature measurement in intensive care unit. Crit Care Med 1991;19 (6):818-823.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Frank SM, Nguyen JM, Garcia CM, Barnes RA. Temperature monitoring practices during re­gional anesthesia. Anesth Analg 1999;88(2): 373-7.  Back to cited text no. 9
    

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Correspondence Address:
Hassan Ahmadnia
Department of Urology and Nephrology, Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Science, Mashhad
Iran
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PMID: 21060189

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