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Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE Table of Contents   
Year : 2012  |  Volume : 23  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 296-300
Acute renal failure in falciparum malaria: Clinical characteristics, demonstration of oxidative stress, and prognostication


1 Department of Nephrology, Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences (SVIMS), Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India
2 Department of Biochemistry, Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences (SVIMS), Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
V Siva Kumar
Department of Nephrology, Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences (SVIMS), Tirupati 517507, Andhra Pradesh
India
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PMID: 22382222

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In this prospective study, we aimed to assess the clinical characteristics of acute renal failure (ARF), determine oxidative stress, as well as to predict the outcome in patients with severe falciparum malaria (FM). The study included a total of 75 subjects; there were 25 adult patients with acute severe FM and ARF, 25 adult patients with uncomplicated FM without ARF, and 25 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects who served as controls. In patients with severe FM and ARF (n = 25), renal failure was non-oliguric in 28% and oliguric in 72%. The average duration of renal failure was 10.53 ± 4.0 days. Sixty percent recovered and 40% died. All patients with non-oliguric presentation recovered. The mean serum malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were 0.82 ± 0.43 μmol/L, 2.97 ± 1.11 μmol/L, and 6.86 ± 2.62 μmol/L, respectively, in healthy con­trols, in patients with uncomplicated FM, and in those with severe FM with ARF. The Acute Physiology Age and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, and the Acute Tubular Necrosis-Individual Severity Index (ATN-ISI) score were all significantly higher in the expired group (19 ± 5.49) when compared to the survivor group (14.4 ± 3.15) (P = 0.014). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that survival was low in patients with delayed hospitalization and longer duration of symptoms. Also, we observed a high occurrence of acute respiratory distress syndrome and central nervous system involvement among the patients who expired.


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