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Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
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RENAL DATA FROM ASIA - AFRICA Table of Contents   
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 25  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 450-455
Acute renal failure in pregnancy: Our experience

1 Department of Nephrology and Clinical Transplantation, Institute of Kidney Diseases and Research Center, Dr. H. L. Trivedi Institute of Transplantation Sciences, Ahmedabad, India
2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Institute of Kidney Diseases and Research Center, Dr. H. L. Trivedi Institute of Transplantation Sciences, Ahmedabad, India

Correspondence Address:
Manoj Gumber
Department of Nephrology and Clinical Transplantation, IKDRC-ITS, Civil Hospital Campus, Asarwa, Ahmedabad 380016, Gujarat
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DOI: 10.4103/1319-2442.128621

PMID: 24626025

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Acute renal failure (ARF) is a serious medical complication during pregnancy, and, in the post-partum period, is associated with significant maternal morbidity and mortality as well as fetal loss. The objective of our study is to find the etiology and maternal outcome of ARF during preg­nancy. The study was conducted at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of the Institute of Kidney Disease and Research Center, Ahmedabad, India from January 2009 to January 2011. Fifty previously healthy patients who developed ARF, diagnosed on oliguria and serum creatinine >2 mg%, were included in the study. Patients with a known history of renal disease, diabetes and hypertension were excluded from the study. All patients were followed-up for a period of six months. Patient re­cords, demographic data, urine output on admission and preceding history of antepartum hemorrhage (APH), post-partum hemorrhage (PPH), septicemia, operative interventions and retained product of conception were noted and need for dialysis was considered. Patients were thoroughly examined and baseline biochemical investigations and renal and obstetrical ultrasound were performed on each patient and bacterial culture sensitivity on blood, urine or vaginal swabs were performed in selected patients. The age range was 19-38 years (mean 26 ± 3.8). The first trimester, second trimester and puerperal groups comprised of four (8%), 25 (50%) and 21 patients (42%), respectively. Hemorrhage was the etiology for ARF in 15 (30%), APH in ten (20%) and PPH in five (10%) patients. Eleven (22%) patients had lower segment cesarian section (LSCS) while 36 (78%) patients had normal vaginal delivery. In 20 (40%) patients, puerperal sepsis was the etiological factor, while pre-eclampsia, eclampsia and HELLP syndrome accounted for 18 (36%) patients. Two (4%) patients had dissemi­nated intravascular coagulation on presentation while one (2%) patient was diagnosed with hemolytic uremic syndrome. Maternal mortality was 12% (n = 6). Of the 38 (88%) surviving patients, 21 (42%) had complete recovery of renal function, eight (16%) patients had partial and 15 (30%) patients required dialysis on a long-term basis. ARF in pregnancy is associated with poor maternal and renal outcome if not detected and treated in time.

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