Home About us Current issue Back issues Submission Instructions Advertise Contact Login   

Search Article 
  
Advanced search 
 
Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
Users online: 1831 Home Bookmark this page Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font size Increase font size 
 

Table of Contents   
ORIGINAL ARTICLE  
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 25  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 974-980
Predictive parameters of survival in hemodialysis patients with restless leg syndrome


1 University of Kragujevac, Faculty of Medicine Kragujevac, Clinic of Urology and Nephrology, Clinical Center Kragujevac, Serbia
2 University of Belgrade, Faculty of Medicine Belgrade, Institute of Medical Statistics and Informatics, Serbia
3 Clinic of Neurology, Clinical Center Kragujevac, Serbia
4 University of Pristina, Medical Faculty, Internal Clinic, Pristina, Serbia
5 Health Center Pristina/Gracanica, Serbia
6 University of Kragujevac, Faculty of Medicine, Kragujevac, Serbia
7 Clinic for Infectious Diseases, Clinical Center, Kragujevac, Serbia

Click here for correspondence address and email

Date of Web Publication2-Sep-2014
 

   Abstract 

Restless leg syndrome (RLS) affects the quality of life and survival in patients on hemodialysis (HD). The aim of this study was to determine the characteristics and survival parameters in patients on HD with RLS. This study was a non-randomized clinical study involving 204 patients on HD, of whom 71 were female and 133 were male. Symptoms of RLS were defined as positive responses to four questions comprising the criteria of RLS. We recorded the outcome of treatment, biochemical analyses, demographic, sexual, anthropometric and clinical characteristics in all study patients. Patients with RLS who completed the study had a significantly higher body mass index and lower intima-media thickness and flow through the arteriovenous fistula. Among patients with RLS who died, there were more smokers as well as higher incidences of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Among patients with RLS who survived, there were a greater number of patients with preserved diuresis and receiving erythropoietin therapy. Patients who completed the study had significantly higher levels of hemoglobin, creatinine, serum iron and transferrin satura­tion. Diabetes mellitus (B = 1.802; P = 0.002) and low Kt/V (B = -5.218; P = 0.001) were major predictive parameters for survival.

How to cite this article:
Stolic RV, Trajkovic GZ, Jekic D, Sovtic SR, Jovanovic AN, Stolic DZ, Stanojevic-Pirkovic MS, Djordjevic Z. Predictive parameters of survival in hemodialysis patients with restless leg syndrome. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2014;25:974-80

How to cite this URL:
Stolic RV, Trajkovic GZ, Jekic D, Sovtic SR, Jovanovic AN, Stolic DZ, Stanojevic-Pirkovic MS, Djordjevic Z. Predictive parameters of survival in hemodialysis patients with restless leg syndrome. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl [serial online] 2014 [cited 2019 Nov 18];25:974-80. Available from: http://www.sjkdt.org/text.asp?2014/25/5/974/139869

   Introduction Top


The restless leg syndrome (RLS) is a neuro­logical disorder characterized by sensorimotor symptoms, a type of paresthesia and involuntary initiation of the lower extremities, usually occurring during rest or at night. [1] The RLS in patients on dialysis is in all likelihood of the secondary variety. The pathophysiological me­chanisms of symptomatic or secondary forms of RLS include iron deficiency, pregnancy, neuro­logical lesions (polyneuropathy), uremia, rheu­matic disease, venous insufficiency and other causes. [2] Epidemiological studies show that the prevalence of RLS in the general population is 5-10%. In patients with terminal renal insuffi­ciency, the prevalence is 12-62%, [3] suggesting that renal failure might be a significant risk factor affecting its occurrence. Thus, symptoms of RLS improve after renal transplantation, but deteriorate after graft rejection. [1] The RLS affects quality of life and is associated with increased mortality in patients on hemodialysis (HD). [4],[5] La Manna et al [1] found that the proba­bility of occurrence of new cardiovascular di­sease in patients on HD with RLS was twice as high as that for patients without such symp­toms.

Lately, much research in the general popula­tion has indicated that presence of cardio­vascular and cerebrovascular diseases is asso­ciated with various forms of RLS. Walters et al [6] detected a mutual correlation between RLS and stroke.

The aim of this study was to determine the characteristics of patients on chronic HD with RLS, parameters of survivals and impact on the increase in mortality.


   Methods Top


Study design

This prospective, non-randomized, clinical study was conducted at the Clinic of Urology and Nephrology, Clinical Center, Kragujevac, Serbia. The study included 204 patients [71 females (34.8%) and 133 males (65.2%)] with symp­toms of RLS. Most of the patients received HD for 12 h per week using commercially available dialyzers (Fresenius Medical Care, Bad Hom-burg, Germany and Gambro AB, Lund, Sweden) using a bicarbonate dialysate; few patients were on hemodiafiltration.

Procedures were in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration.

Criteria for selection and clinical research

The research population was selected after a clinical interview, which recorded the symp­toms of RLS. Because there is no specific diag­nostic test for RLS, the diagnosis was based on the assessment of subjective symptoms and the clinical picture for each patient. Positive an­swers to the following four questions confirmed the diagnosis of RLS, according to the criteria of the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group in 1953 and revised by the Inter­national Diagnostic Workshop at the National Institute of Health in Washington: [7]

  1. Do you have an urge to move the legs due to an unpleasant feeling in your legs?
  2. Does the urge to move your legs, or the unpleasant feelings in your legs, begin or get worse when you are at rest or not moving around frequently?
  3. Is the urge to move your legs, or the unpleasant feelings in your legs, partly or completely relieved by movement (such as walking or stretching) for as long as the movement continues?
  4. Is the urge to move your legs, or the unpleasant feelings in your legs, worse in the evening and at night, or does it only occur in the evening or at night? [7],[8]


After identifying the patients with and without RLS, two groups of respondents were formed and monitored for outcome of clinical treat­ment. Demographic and sex structure, length and type of HD (bicarbonate/hemodiafiltration), information about the existence of insomnia and residual diuresis (at least 250 mL) were recorded for all respondents. We registered smokers, patients on erythropoietin therapy and presence of co-morbidity such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Body mass index was calculated from the ratio between body weight in kilograms and the square of body height in meter squared. Adequacy of HD was estimated by the urea kinetic model Kt/V, according to the formula of Daugirdas. [9]

Blood flow through the arteriovenous fistula (AVF; mL/L) was measured by Doppler ultra­sound examination in a LOGIQ P5 apparatus (GE Healthcare, Wau-watosa, WI, USA). Also, the intima-media thickness of the posterior wall of the common carotid artery (mm) was determined 2 cm above and below the carotid bifurcation with Doppler study. [10]

Blood samples for biochemical analysis were obtained in Vacutainer ® tubes in the middle of the week before dialysis. All analyses were made by flow cytometry (Beckman Coulter Inc., Fullerton, CA, USA) and spectrophotometrically (ILAB-600, Diamond Diagnostics, Fiske Street Holliston, MA, USA) using the original reagents.


   Statistical Analysis Top


Using the SPSS and INSTAT software pro­grams, descriptive statistical parameters such as arithmetic mean and standard deviation (SD) were obtained and the results were subjected to Student's t-test, the Mann-Whitney test and the chi-square test for homogeneity and Fisher's exact test for trends, as appropriate. The median survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. The influence of potential predictors of mortality on survival was deter­mined using the Cox regression analysis. Statis­tical significance was set at P <0.05.


   Results Top


The median age of the study patients was 60 years, and they were on treatment with HD for a mean of 4.5 years. The average flow through the AVF in our study patients was 690 mL/min. Over half of the respondents had some form of cardiovascular disease and 16% were diabetic. The mean body mass index in our study sub­jects was 23 kg/m 2 . Measured values of Kt/V in the patients were unsatisfactory and suggested inadequate dialysis. Intima-media thickness of the carotid artery was 1 mm. Nearly two-thirds of respondents were receiving iron and erythropoietin therapy. Half of the subjects were smokers, 44% had insomnia and 30% of the respondents had preserved diuresis. The median survival of the study patients was 121 months.

When the clinical characteristics of patients who completed the study and those who died were compared, significant differences in body mass index (25 ± 5.8 vs.19 ± 2:17, P <0.0001), intima-media thickness (1 ± 0.2 vs. 1 ± 0.11, P = 0.01) and flow through the AVF (P = 0.01) were observed. The relative number of smokers (P = 0.007) as well as the incidence of cardio­vascular disease (P = 0.005) and diabetes mellitus (P = 0.04) were significantly higher among patients who died. On the other hand, a higher proportion of patients who completed the study used erythropoietin therapy (P = 0.001) and had residual diuresis (P = 0.001) [Table 1].
Table 1: Gender, demographic, anthropometric and clinical findings in patients with restless leg syndrome who completed the study and those who died.

Click here to view


The group of patients who survived had higher levels of hemoglobin (103 ± 17.1 vs. 93 ± 12.9;

P = 0.005), higher serum creatinine (898 ± 315 vs. 858 ± 202; P = 0.03) and higher serum iron (11 ± 12.7 vs. 8 ± 4.6, P = 0.01) as well as transferrin saturation (31 ± 12.6 vs. 21.5 ± 13.7; P = 0.01) [Table 2]. Additionally, patients with RLS who had diabetes mellitus (B = 1.802, P = 0.002) or lower Kt/V index (B = -5218; P = 0.001) died earlier [Table 3].
Table 2: Biochemical findings in patients with restless leg syndrome who completed the study and those who died.

Click here to view
Table 3: Survival analysis with the Cox regression model for patients with restless leg syndrome.

Click here to view



   Discussion Top


To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in which the impact of RLS on the sur­vival of patients receiving chronic HD was eva­luated over such a long period. The basic idea was to identify patients with RLS in order to determine their characteristics, survival and pre­dictive parameters for mortality. A significantly higher incidence of diabetes mellitus was found among patients with RLS. This was expected, given that a significant number of studies have indicated a positive association. [11],[12],[13] Also, others have shown that a long duration on dialysis is a significant characteristic of patients with RLS. [14] Although the average duration on dialysis in our patients with RLS was longer than six years, in contrast to two years for patients with­out these symptoms, the difference was not statistically significant. In the patients with RLS who died, the median survival after 121 months was 50%. In their 18-months evaluation, La Manna et al [1] found that patients with RLS had an increased mortality risk. We found that patients with RLS who died had a significantly lower body mass index, which supports the theory of inverse epidemio­logy, which promulgates an increased survival rate of obese patients on HD. [15],[16],[17],[18],[19] In support of this theory is the increased concentration of creatinine, as a nutritional parameter, which was significantly higher in our patients with RLS who did not die.

Among our patients with RLS who died, one-third were smokers, which was significantly higher than in the group of patients who com­pleted the study. This finding concurs with other studies [19],[20] that have reported a similar association with smoking habit.

The presence of cardiovascular diseases cha­racterized our patients who died. An analysis of the cause of death showed that cardiovascular diseases were the cause in almost two-thirds of cases, while stroke was the reason in one-quarter of cases. In the general population with RLS, there are reportedly a significant number of co-morbidities, but cardiovascular disease and stroke are prevalent. One of the pathophysiological mechanisms by which RLS contri­butes to the development of cardiovascular disease is the impact of increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system on the occurrence of tachycardia and hypertension. [20],[21],[22] In healthy individuals, this may not have any consequences, but in dialysis patients with multiple co-mor­bidities, it becomes a significant risk factor for mortality. [23] La Manna et al [1] detected some con­nection between RLS patients on HD and in­cident episodes of myocardial infarction, stroke and peripheral arterial occlusion. Although not statistically significant, this suggested that RLS may be primarily an indicator of poor health, especially pronounced for cardiovascular co-morbidity. In contrast, Filho et al [14] suggest that in patients with chronic renal failure, there is no significant evidence of an association of RLS with co-morbid and etiologic categories of renal failure.

In the general population, Walters et al [6] established a positive correlation between hyperten­sion, heart disease and stroke in patients with RLS, probably as a result of accelerated athero­sclerosis. However, we could not find any in­formation that correlated RLS and intima-media thickness as a marker of atherosclerosis in the HD population. The values obtained in our patients who died were significantly higher than in those who completed the study, without indi­cating the predictive significance of intima-media thickness in the occurrence of RLS. However, this result can be interpreted in rela­tion to the survival rate of our respondents on dialysis with hemodiafiltration, which was sig­nificantly higher than that for patients receiving bicarbonate hemodialysis. [24],[25],[26],[27],[28] This was most likely due to the increased clearance of small and medium-sized molecules, improved inter-dialytic hemodynamic stability and reduced complement activation during hemodiafiltration. The results also showed a certain influence of hemodiafiltration on intima-media thickness of carotid arteries due to improved biocompati-bility of the dialysis system thus reducing its inflammatory character. Such an effect could be reflected in a lower atherogenic profile.

Musci et al [29] found no concrete evidence of a significant influence of HD dose on the preva­lence of RLS, but we observed that the quality of HD had a predictive value for increased sur­vival of patients who had clinical symptoms of RLS.

In patients with RLS who died, there was a high prevalence of individuals with diabetes mellitus as the cause of renal insufficiency, and also the mean concentration of serum glucose in this subgroup was significantly higher. How­ever, even though the correlation of RLS and diabetes mellitus was not confirmed in major trials, [30] diabetes is a common cause of polyneuropathy, and, as expected, the prevalence of RLS in the subgroup of HD patients with dia­betes mellitus was higher. In our patients, the Cox regression survival analysis demonstrated the significance of diabetes mellitus (i.e., pa­tients with diabetic nephropathy) and RLS having a higher mortality rate.

Iron deficiency has a dual role; it causes anemia as well as lack of a co-factor in the metabolism of dopamine in the brain, which plays an important role in the pathophysiology of RLS. Therefore, correction of anemia with intra­venous iron and erythropoietin reduced the incidence of RLS and significantly improved the quality of life in HD patients. [31],[32] Among our patients with RLS, nearly equal numbers of those who completed the study and those who died had received iron therapy, but the levels of hemoglobin and serum iron and transferrin saturation were significantly higher in patients who survived. However, there is a logical ques­tion and a dilemma about why there is this high rate of RLS among the large number of dialysis patients receiving intravenous iron. Obviously, there is a large group of mixed forms that may pose a differential diagnostic problem, because 80% of patients with RLS symptoms have noc­turnal myoclonus while about 30% of patients with nocturnal myoclonus have RLS. [14]


   Limitations of the Study Top


Even though we used positive responses to all four questions as the criteria for diagnosis of RLS, we cannot exclude other forms that mimic RLS. Moreover, these criteria are not adapted to involve known vascular risk factors such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Also, a limitation of our study is that no neurologist was included in the selection of patients with RLS.

In conclusion, during the evaluation of pa­tients with RLS, we found that diabetes mellitus is an important feature of these patients. Pa­tients with RLS who completed the study were obese, had greater atherogenic profile, higher levels of hemoglobin and creatinine, greater satu­ration of transferrin and included a relatively larger relative number of patients who received erythropoietin and had residual diuresis. Among patients who died, there were more smokers, and they had a higher incidence of cardio­vascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Finally, our study established that presence of diabetes mellitus and inadequate HD are parameters predictive of mortality in patients with RLS.

Conflict of interest:

None

 
   References Top

1.La Manna G, Pizza F, Persici E, et al. Restless legs syndrome enhances cardiovascular risk and mortality in patients with end-stage kidney disease undergoing long-term haemodialysis treatment. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2011;26: 1976-83.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Paulus W, Dowling P, Rijsman R, Stiasny-Kolster K, Trenkwalder C. Update of the pathophysiology of the restless-legs-syndrome. Mov Disord 2007;22 Suppl 18:S431-9.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Stolic RV, Milenkovic SR, Radosavljevic SS, et al. Incidence and characteristics of restless legs syndrome in hemodialysis patients. BANTAO J 2011;9:42-5.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Perl J, Unruh ML, Chan CT. Sleep disorders in end-stage renal disease: 'Markers of inadequate dialysis?' Kidney Int 2006;70:1687-93.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Schormair B, Plag J, Kaffe M, et al. MEIS1 and BTBD9: Genetic association with restless leg syndrome in end stage renal disease. J Med Genet 2011;48:462-6.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.Walters AS, Moussouttas M, Siddiqui F, et al. Prevalence of stroke in restless legs syndrome: Initial results point to the need for more sophis­ticated studies. Open Neurol J 2010;4:73-7.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Walters AS. Toward a better definition of the restless legs syndrome. The International Rest­less Legs Syndrome Study Group. Mov Disord 1995;10:634-42.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Allen RP, Picchietti D, Hening WA, Trenkwalder C, Walters AS, Montplaisi J; Restless Legs Syn­drome Diagnosis and Epidemiology workshop at the National Institutes of Health; International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group: Restless legs syndrome: Diagnostic criteria, special considerations, and epidemiology. A report from the restless legs syndrome diagnosis and epidemiology workshop at the National Institutes of Health. Sleep Med 2003;4:101-19.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Daugirdas JT. Chronic haemodialysis prescrip­tion: A urea kinetics approach. In: Daugirdas J, Ing TS, eds. Handbook of Dialysis. Boston: Little Brown; 1994. p. 92-120.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.Stoliæ R, Trajkoviæ G, Jovanoviæ A, et al. Carotid ultrasonographic parameters as markers of atherogenesis and mortality rate in patients on hemodialysis. Vojnosanit Pregl 2010;67:916-22.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.Phillips B, Young T, Finn L, Asher K, Hening WA, Purvis C. Epidemiology of restless legs symptoms in adults. Arch Intern Med 2000; 160:2137-41.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.Merlino G, Valente M, Serafini A, et al. Effects of restless legs syndrome on quality of life and psychological status in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Educ 2010;36:79-7.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.Merlino G, Fratticci L, Valente M, et al. Association of restless legs syndrome in type 2 diabetes: A case-control study. Sleep 2007;30: 866-71.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.Goffredo Filho GS, Gorini CC, Purysko AS, Silva HC, Elias IE. Restless legs syndrome in patients on chronic hemodialysis in a Brazilian city: Frequency, biochemical findings and co-morbidities. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2003;61:723-7.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.Kalantar-Zadeh K, Block G, Humphreys MH, Kopple JD. Reverse epidemiology of cardio­vascular risk factors in maintenance dialysis patients. Kidney Int 2003;63:793-808.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.Stolic R, Trajkovic G, Jovanovic A, et al. Asso­ciation of metabolic changes with mortality of patients treated by peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis. Ren Fail 2010;32:778-83.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.Stolic RV, Trajkovic GZ, Peric VM, et al. Impact of metabolic syndrome and malnutrition on mortality in chronic hemodialysis patients. J Ren Nutr 2010;20:38-3.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.Stolic R, Trajkovic G, Stolic D, Peric V, Subaric-Gorgieva G. Nutrition parameters as hemodialysis adequacy markers. Hippokratia 2010;14:193-7.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.Stolic R, Trajkovic G. Protein-energetic malnu­trition as a predictor of mortality in patients on haemodialysis. Med Pregl 2009;62:573-7.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.Winkelman JW, Shahar E, Sharief I, Gottlieb DJ. Association of restless legs syndrome and cardiovascular disease in the Sleep Heart Health Study. Neurology 2008;70:35-42.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.Al-Jahdali HH, Al-Qadhi WA, Khogeer HA, Al-Hejaili FF, Al-Ghamdi SM, Al Sayyari AA. Restless legs syndrome in patients on dialysis. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2009;20:378-85.  Back to cited text no. 21
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
22.Winter AC, Schürks M, Glynn RJ, et al. Restless legs syndrome and risk of incident cardiovascular disease in women and men: prospective cohort study. BMJ Open 2012; 2:e000866.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.Yüksel ª, Çölbay M, Yaman M, Uslan Ý, Acartürk G, Karaman Ö. Evaluation of the diagnostic criteria of restless leg syndrome in hemodialysis patients. Eur J Gen Med 2008;5: 145-8.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.Canaud B, Bragg-Gresham JL, Marshall MR, et al. Mortality risk for patients receiving hemo-diafiltration versus hemodialysis: European results from the DOPPS. Kidney Int 2006; 69:2087-93.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.Pedrini LA, De Cristofaro V, Pagliari B, Samà F. Mixed predilution and postdilution online hemodiafiltration compared with the traditional infusion modes. Kidney Int 2000;58:2155-65.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.van der Weerd NC, Penne EL, van den Dorpel MA, et al. Haemodiafiltration: promise for the future? Nephrol Dial Transplant 2008;23:438-43.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.Vilar E, Fry AC, Wellsted D, Tattersall JE, Greenwood RN, Farrington K. Long-term outcomes in online hemodiafiltration and high-flux hemodialysis: A comparative analysis. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2009;4:1944-53.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.Penne EL, Blankestijn PJ, Bots ML, et al; the CONTRAST study group. Effect of increased convective clearance by on-line hemodiafiltra­tion on all cause and cardiovascular mortality in chronic hemodialysis patients - the Dutch CONvective TRAnsport STudy (CONTRAST): Rationale and design of a randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN38365125]. Curr Control Trials Cardiovasc Med 2005;6:8.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.Mucsi I, Molnar MZ, Ambrus C, et al. Restless legs syndrome, insomnia and quality of life in patients on maintenance dialysis. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2005;20:571-7.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.Lopes IA, Lins CM, Adeodato VG, et al. Restless legs syndrome and quality of sleep in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2005;28:2633-6.  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.Gigli GL, Adorati M, Dolso P, et al. Restless legs syndrome in end-stage renal disease. Sleep Med 2004;5:309-15.  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.Sloand JA, Shelly MA, Feigin A, Bernstein P, Monk RD. A doubleblind, placebo-controlled trial of intravenous iron dextran therapy in patients with ESRD and restless legs syndrome. Am J Kidney Dis 2004;43:663-70.  Back to cited text no. 32
    

Top
Correspondence Address:
Prof. Radojica V Stolic
Clinical center Kragujevac, Zmaj Jovina 30, 34000 Kragujevac
Serbia
Login to access the Email id


DOI: 10.4103/1319-2442.139869

PMID: 25193893

Rights and Permissions



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

Top
   
 
 
    Similar in PUBMED
    Search Pubmed for
    Search in Google Scholar for
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  
 


 
    Abstract
   Introduction
   Methods
   Statistical Analysis
   Results
   Discussion
    Limitations of t...
    References
    Article Tables
 

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed1841    
    Printed39    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded367    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal