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Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
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SCOT DATA  
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 27  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 1293-1306
Organ Transplantation in Saudi Arabia - 2015



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Date of Web Publication28-Nov-2016
 

How to cite this article:
. Organ Transplantation in Saudi Arabia - 2015. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2016;27:1293-306

How to cite this URL:
. Organ Transplantation in Saudi Arabia - 2015. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl [serial online] 2016 [cited 2020 Aug 9];27:1293-306. Available from: http://www.sjkdt.org/text.asp?2016/27/6/1293/194702
Organ transplantation program in the Kingdom started in 1979 when the first kidney from a living donor was transplanted in Riyadh Military Hospital, and by the end of 2015 a total of 9790 kidneys were transplanted; 6583 were from living related donors, 2838 from deceased donors and 369 from living unrelated donors. The program received a big boost with the inception of the National Kidney Foundation in 1984 and further in 1993 when the organization was upgraded and renamed as Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation (SCOT).

Kidney transplantation program showed that total of 762 kidneys were transplanted this year; 618 were from living donors and 144 from deceased donors. Among the 144 deceased kidneys, 26 were used for pediatric recipients and 118 for adults.

Liver transplantation program in the Kingdom was started in 1990 and by the end of 2015 a total of 1793 livers were transplanted. This included 866 livers from living related donors, 70 from living unrelated donors and 857 form deceased donors. Liver transplant operations are performed in four active centers; King Faisal Specialist Hospital-Riyadh, King Fahd Specialist Hospital-Dammam, King Abdulaziz Medical City and National Guard-Riyadh, and Prince Sultan Military Medical CityRiyadh. In this year 130 livers were transplanted from living donors and 67 from deceased donors.

The first heart transplant operation in the Kingdom was performed in 1986 at Riyadh Military Hospital. During the period (1986-2015), a total of 310 whole heart transplantations were done inside the Kingdom, in addition to 619 hearts used as source of valves. In this year, 30 whole hearts were transplanted and 17 hearts were recovered to be used as source for valves.

Lung transplantation in the Kingdom was started in 1991 at King Fahd Hospital-Jeddah. And by the end of 2015, a total of 182 lungs were transplanted to 107 recipients as single or double. In this year 39 lungs were transplanted to 20 recipients.

Pancreas transplantation was started at Al-Shaty Teaching Hospital-Jeddah. A total of 35 pancreas were transplanted since the inception of the program in 1990. In this year eight pancreas transplantations were done at King Faisal Specialist Hospital-Riyadh.

Although more than 25,000 corneal transplantations were performed in the Kingdom during the period 1983-2015, the number of transplants from locally harvested corneas is still very low (698 corneas).

Bone transplantation program, started in 2009, has promising results. Until now a total of 270 bones were harvested in addition to 105 musculoskeletal tissues.

Since the inception of the organ sharing program with Kuwait, Spain, Qatar and the Kingdom of Bahrain, SCOT has benefited from a total of 63 kidneys, 132 livers, 18 whole hearts, 57 hearts for valves, 28 lungs, and one pancreas.


   Kidney Transplantation - 2015 Top


A total of 762 kidneys were being transplanted inside the Kingdom during this year, 618 from living donors and 144 from deceased donors.

Regarding kidneys from deceased donors, 101 cases were consented for kidney donation from which 175 kidneys were recovered, 144 were transplanted inside the Kingdom to 139 recipients (10 as en-bloc), 28 were transplanted by transplant centers outside the Kingdom, and three were discarded. The following table shows the performance of kidney transplant centers during the year 2015.



Out of the 144 deceased kidneys, 107 (74%) were transplanted from standard criteria donors (SCD) and the remaining 37 (26%) were from expanded criteria donors (ECD).

Kidney Donor Risk Index (KDRI) for locally recovered deceased kidneys was ranging between 0.71 and 2.56 with a mean of 1.29. It is worth mentioning that 24% of the cases has KDRI <1, 50% are between (1.0-1.5), and 26% had KDRI above 1.5.

Cold ischemia time (CIT) for locally transplanted deceased kidneys was ranging from 2 hours to 29 hours with mean CIT of 12 hours. In 52 % of the cases; kidneys were transplanted with a CIT <12 hours, in 44% within 12-24 hours, and in only 4% within 24-29 hours.

Matching sex (male to male or female to female) was done in 63% of the kidneys transplanted and matching blood groups in 90% of the cases. Age distribution for donors and recipients of deceased kidneys is shown in the table below.



Kidneys were not recovered from eligible donors after consent in 27 cases for reasons indicated in the table below.



Three kidneys were discarded after recovery: two of them due to liposarcoma and one due traumatic kidney injury.

Living Kidney Transplantation-2015

A total of 618 kidney transplantations had been performed this year from living donors; 529 (86%) from living related donors and 89 (14%) from living unrelated donor. The total number of kidneys transplanted from living donors since 1988 is 6952 including 6583 kidneys from living related donors and 369 from living un-related donors.


   Liver Transplantation - 2015 Top


Hundred deceased cases were consented for liver donation this year. Retrieval was carried in 65 cases from which 67 livers were transplanted (including 2 split liver transplantations). Livers were not retrieved from 25 cases while in 10 cases livers were discarded.

Deceased liver transplant operations were distributed between King Faisal Specialist HospitalRiyadh (23 operations), King Abdulaziz Medical City and National Guard-Riyadh (24 operations), and King Fahd Specialist Hospital-Dammam (20 operations). 93% of the deceased livers were transplanted for adult recipients and 7% went for pediatric recipient.

CIT for locally transplanted deceased livers was ranging from 1 hour 15 minutes to 10 hours 40 minutes with an average of 7 hours 28 minutes. In 54% of the cases, livers were transplanted with CIT ≤6 hours and in 46% of the cases it was transplanted within 6-12 hours.

Matching sex between donor and recipient for deceased livers was done in 46% of the cases and matching blood group in 93% of the cases.

Livers were not recovered in 25 cases due to the reasons in the table below.



Livers were discarded by transplant centers after retrieval in 10 cases due to the following reasons:

  • Inflammation /fibrosis (4 cases)
  • Steatosis (5 cases)
  • Neoplasm (one case)


Liver from Living Donors - 2015

A total of 130 liver transplantations were performed this year from living doors; 128 (98%) were from living related donors and two (2%) were from living un-related donors. Liver Transplant from living donors was done in four active centers indicated in the table below.




   Heart Transplantation - 2015 Top


A total of 98 consents were obtained for heart donation this year (97% of total consents), 30 whole hearts were recovered and transplanted at King Faisal Specialist Hospital-Riyadh (24 for adults and 6 for pediatric). In addition; 17 hearts were also harvested to be used as a source for valves; all were given to King Faisal Specialist Hospital-Riyadh.

Matching sex between donor and recipient for heart transplantation was done in 73% of the cases while matching blood group was done in 87%.

Fifty one hearts were consented for donation but not recovered for the reasons in the table below.



Heart for valves recovery and utilization is shown in the table below:



Heart for valves recovery and utilization - 2015


   Lung Transplantation 2015 Top


A total of 98 consents were obtained this year for lung donation (97% of total consents) from which 20 donors were utilized and 39 lungs were transplanted; 38 as double for 19 recipients and one as single to another recipient; all were performed at King Faisal Specialist Hospital-Riyadh. Lungs were not recovered from 75 donors while in the remaining three donors lungs were discarded. Matching sex was done in 65% of the lungs transplanted while matching blood group was done in 85% of the cases.



Lungs were not recovered from 75 donors after consent for reasons shown in the table below.



Lungs from three donors were discarded after recovery due to the following reasons: One case due to poor lung function, one case due to lungs disease and one case because there is no available suitable recipient.



Total lungs transplanted: 182
Total lung transplant recipient: 107


   Pancreas Transplantation - 2015 Top


Ninety eight (98) eligible deceased donors were obtained this year for pancreas donation; 88 from inside the kingdom and 10 from GCC countries. Eight pancreas were recovered and transplanted; two as a simultaneous kidney-pancreas operation (SKP) and six in a pancreas transplant alone (PTA) operation. Pancreas transplantations were performed by King Faisal Specialist HospitalRiyadh (5 PTA and 1 SKP) and King Fahd Specialist Hospital-Dammam (1 PTA and 1 SKP).

Eighty (80) pancreases were consented for donation but not harvested for the reasons indicated in the table below:



It is worth mentioning that the first pancreas transplant operation was done in 1990, followed by two combined kidney-pancreas operations in 1991. Another combined kidney-pancreas operation was also done in 1992 at Al-Shaty Hospital in collaboration with King Abdul-Aziz Hospital-Jeddah.


   Cornea Transplantation - 2015 Top


Corneal donation and transplantation program in the kingdom was established in 1983. Corneas were recovered along with multi-organ retrieval from deceased donors. In this year consent for corneal donation was obtained from 51 cases, 39 from inside the Kingdom and 12 from outside the Kingdom (GCC). 6 corneas were retrieved from three donors while corneas were not recovered from 36 donors after consent for the following reasons:



It is worth mentioning that King Khalid Eye Specialist Hospital-Riyadh, being the most active corneal transplant center in the Kingdom. It performed 730 corneal transplantations harvested from abroad, in addition to 801 corneas sent to other eye care facilities in the Kingdom.


   Bone Transplantation 2015 Top


Bone donation from deceased donors in the Kingdom was started by King Faisal Specialist Hospital-Riyadh in 2009. At present, bone recovery, in central region, goes along with the multiorgan recovery from deceased donors.

In this year 27 cases were consented for bone and musculoskeletal tissue (MST) donation wherein, 12 donors were harvested from which 44 bones and 15 MST were recovered. It is worth mentioning that a total of 270 bones had been recovered in addition to 105 musculoskeletal connective tissues for the purpose of bone allograft since the inception of bone donation program in the Kingdom.

Performance of deceased bone and MST recovery in 2015 is shown below.











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DOI: 10.4103/1319-2442.194702

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