Home About us Current issue Back issues Submission Instructions Advertise Contact Login   

Search Article 
  
Advanced search 
 
Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
Users online: 231 Home Bookmark this page Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font size Increase font size 
 


 
Table of Contents   
ORIGINAL ARTICLE  
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 29  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 540-544
Evaluation of blood pressure in children with idiopathic overactive bladder syndrome


1 Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Clinical Research Development Center, Amirkabir Hospital, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran
2 Students Research Committee, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran
3 Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Clinical Research Development Center, Amirkabir Hospital, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran

Click here for correspondence address and email

Date of Submission29-May-2017
Date of Decision30-Jul-2017
Date of Acceptance30-Jul-2017
Date of Web Publication28-Jun-2018
 

   Abstract 

Children with an overactive bladder generally exhibit frequency, urgency, and urge incontinence. Often, a child will squat to try to prevent urinary incontinence. The bladder in these children is not anatomically and is functionally, smaller than normal and exhibits strong uncontrolled contractions. The aim of this study was to the evaluation of blood pressure (BP) in children with idiopathic overactive bladder syndrome. In this case-control study, we selected 110 children with overactive bladder as cases and 220 children without overactive bladder as controls. Children with overactive bladder and healthy children without overactive bladder were enrolled, and their BP was measured in children. P <0.05 was considered statistically significant in our comparisons. The mean age of the children was 8.8 ± 1.70 and 8.53 ± 2.44 years in overactive bladder and control group, respectively. The mean systolic and diastolic BP were a significant difference between case and control groups (P = 0.001). Systolic and diastolic BP were significantly higher in children with overactive bladder.

How to cite this article:
Yousefichaijan P, Khosrobeigi A, Soltani M, Ghandi Y, Mojtahedi F. Evaluation of blood pressure in children with idiopathic overactive bladder syndrome. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2018;29:540-4

How to cite this URL:
Yousefichaijan P, Khosrobeigi A, Soltani M, Ghandi Y, Mojtahedi F. Evaluation of blood pressure in children with idiopathic overactive bladder syndrome. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl [serial online] 2018 [cited 2018 Nov 15];29:540-4. Available from: http://www.sjkdt.org/text.asp?2018/29/3/540/235177

   Introduction Top


Hypertension is one of the major problems in children. Some studies suggest a strong relationship between high blood pressure (BP) in childhood and high BP in adulthood.[1] BP is considered hypertension when the systolic BP and/or diastolic BP level is over than the 95'h percentile for the child's gender, age, and height.[2] Hypertension in children is increasing due to hyperlipidemia, obesity, low physical activity, and high salt intake. The incidence of hypertension is about 2.5%-5% in the children population.[3]

Overactive bladder is a multifactorial problem. Since both urine and BP are controlled by the autonomous system, the overactive bladder may be along with blood pressure problems.[4],[5],[6] Some case reports have indicated that overactive bladder is along with BP.[7],[8]

The overactive bladder resolves, but time of resolution is very variable, sometimes not until the time of adolescence years.[9]

Raised nighttime urination output and/or bladder hyperactivity in sick people with an early assessment of BP in overactive bladder could probably be along with the autonomous nervous system impairment.

In this study, we want to evaluate BP in children with idiopathic overactive bladder syndrome.


   Subjects and Methods Top


The duration of this study was one year. This study was conducted in 2016. In this case-control study, we selected 110 children (age range: 6 to 18 years) with overactive bladder as cases and 220 children without overactive bladder as controls who were all hospitalized in Amir-Kabir Hospital, Arak/Iran.

Our inclusion criteria were based on history, VCUG, and kidney ultrasonography. The exclusion criteria were as follows:

  1. Children with known underlying kidney and other organ diseases
  2. Children with psychological or nervous system disorders
  3. Children whose parents did not cooperate fully
  4. Children with a family history of type 2 diabetes and thyroid function disorder (all neonate in Iran done screening for hypothyroidism), and
  5. Children with dreaming disorder (authors exclude children with dreaming disorders by history and psychiatrist's opinion).


The control group was selected from outpatient among pediatric sick people with other complaints like the common cold. In this study, a mercury sphygmomanometer with a cuff that covered approximately two-thirds of the upper part of the arm was used for BP measurement. BP was performed with the CITIZEN REF CH_311B (Citizen Systems Tokyo 188-8511, Japan). We used the mean of the three measurements from all participant for analysis. The height of children was measured without the shoes. The results were analyzed using the The analyses were performed using SPSS statistical software (version 10.0; SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). using descriptive tests for basic information and Chi-square for qualitative variables and i-student for quantitative variable. Values of P <0.05 was considered significantly in our comparisons.


   Results Top


The overactive bladder group included 110 children (M/F: 57/53) and the control group included 220 healthy children (M/F: 98/122). The mean age of the children was 8.8 ± 1.70 and 8.53 ± 2.44 years in overactive bladder and control group, respectively [Table 1].
Table 1: Gender of children in two groups.

Click here to view


Overall, 330 children (110 cases and 220 controls) were selected for our study. The diastolic BP in 16 children (14.5%) with over-active bladder and in 23 children (10.5%) of the control group was 90%–95% (prehypertension range) (P = 0.049). The systolic BP in 31 children (28.2%) with overactive bladder and in 11 children (5.0%) of the control group was 90%-95% (prehypertension range) (P = 0.001). Systolic BP was significantly higher in children with overactive bladder. These dis-orders of BP regulation may reflect the autonomous nervous system impairment and the pathogenesis of overactive bladder [Table 2],[Table 3]. The family history of hypertension in 76 children (69.1%) with overactive bladder and in 202 children (91.8%) of the control group was negative (P = 0.001) [Table 4.]
Table 2: Relationship between diastolic blood pressure and overactive bladder.

Click here to view
Table 3: Relationship between systolic blood pressure and overactive bladder.

Click here to view
Table 4: Relationship between family history of HTN and overactive bladder.

Click here to view


The body mass index (BMI) in 39 children (35.5%) with overactive bladder and in 163 children (74.0%) of the control group was in normal BMI (P = 0.001) [Table 5].
Table 5: Relationship between body mass indexand overactive bladder.

Click here to view



   Discussion Top


None of the participants in overactive bladder group included in our study were hypertensive according to length and age percentile values, but the overnight systolic BP and diastolic BP values of this group were upper compared to controls.

The results we achieved are similar to those reported in same published studies, and put forward the hypothesis that the circadian rhythm of BP may play a role of in the pathophysiology of overactive bladder.

The overactive bladder pathogenesis is still poorly understood. Two main pathophysiological concepts are postulated: neurogenic theory and myogenic one. Further studies defining precisely autonomous nervous system disturbances and their reflection in heart beat in over-active bladder are required.[10] Yousefichaijan, found that night-time systolic BP was significantly upper in children with monosymp-tomatic primary nocturnal enuresis. These insensible disorders of the boarding BP regulation may reflect the autonomous nervous system impairment and contribute to the pathogenesis of monosymptomatic primary nocturnal enuresis.[11]

Based on the data, we offer that overactive bladder children have an upper overnight BP compared to normal bladder and thus, the BP is an efficient factor in the happening of over-active bladder in these children.

The limitation of this study was that some people did not return to the clinic for BP measurement.


   Conclusions Top


In brief, systolic BP and diastolic BP levels were found to be significantly higher in over-active bladder sick people compared with control group.

Conflict of interest: None declared.

 
   References Top

1.
Ataei N, Baikpour M, Hosseini M, et al. Blood pressure nomograms for children and adolescents by age and body mass index in Tehran, Iran. Iran J Public Health 2017;46:368-79.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Ali SH, Assi SH, Hussien FS. Hypertension in hemodialyzed children. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2016;27:942-9.  Back to cited text no. 2
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
3.
Pakniyat A, Yousefichaijan P, Parvizrad R, Qaribi M. Hypertension in children in emergency department. J Renal Inj Prev 2016;5: 171-3.  Back to cited text no. 3
[PUBMED]    
4.
Yousefichaijan P, Khosrobeigi A, Zargar S, Salehi B. Sleep disorder in children with overactive bladder. Int J Clin Pediatr 2015;4:145-8.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Hubeaux K, Jousse M, Amarenco G. Female overactive bladder syndrome and autonomic nervous system. Prog Urol 2012;22:199-206.  Back to cited text no. 5
[PUBMED]    
6.
Chughtai B, Kavaler E, Lee R, et al. Use of herbal supplements for overactive bladder. Rev Urol 2013;15:93-6.  Back to cited text no. 6
[PUBMED]    
7.
Liao WC, Jaw FS. A noninvasive evaluation of the autonomous nervous system impairment in women with an overactive bladder. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2010;110:12-7.  Back to cited text no. 7
[PUBMED]    
8.
Ben-Dror I, Weissman A, Leurer MK, Eldor-Itskovitz J, Lowenstein L. Alterations of heart rate variability in women with overactive bladder syndrome. Int Urogynecol J 2012;23: 1081-6.  Back to cited text no. 8
[PUBMED]    
9.
Hubeaux K, Deffieux X, Ismael SS, Raibaut P, Amarenco G. Autonomic nervous system activity during bladder filling assessed by heart rate variability analysis in women with idiopathic overactive bladder syndrome or stress urinary incontinence. J Urol 2007; 178: 2483-7.  Back to cited text no. 9
[PUBMED]    
10.
Dobrek L, Thor P. The autonomous nervous system activity estimated by heart rate variability in cyclophosphamide-induced overactive bladder experimental model. Pol Merkur Lekarski 2011;31:348-52.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Yousefichaijan P, Khosrobeigi A, Taherahmadi H, Soltani M, Ghandi Y, Shariatmadari F, et al. Assessment of blood pressure in early monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis. J Pediatr Nephrol 2016;4:33-6.  Back to cited text no. 11
    

Top
Correspondence Address:
Mr. Ali Khosrobeigi
Students Research Center, Arak University of Medicine Sciences, Arak
Iran
Login to access the Email id


DOI: 10.4103/1319-2442.235177

PMID: 29970729

Rights and Permissions



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5]



 

Top
   
 
 
    Similar in PUBMED
    Search Pubmed for
    Search in Google Scholar for
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  
 


 
    Abstract
   Introduction
   Subjects and Methods
   Results
   Discussion
   Conclusions
    References
    Article Tables
 

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed240    
    Printed3    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded69    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal