Home About us Current issue Back issues Submission Instructions Advertise Contact Login   

Search Article 
Advanced search 
Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
Users online: 2559 Home Bookmark this page Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font size Increase font size 

Table of Contents   
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 30  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 315-324
Association of hepcidin and anemia in early chronic kidney disease

1 Department of Medicine, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Department of Biochemistry, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
3 Department of Nephrology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
4 Department of Toxicology and Experimental Medicine, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India

Click here for correspondence address and email

Date of Submission14-Feb-2018
Date of Acceptance18-Mar-2018
Date of Web Publication23-Apr-2019


Hepcidin is being extensively studied for anemia and inflammation in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Hepcidin is thought to regulate iron metabolism by iron blockade through various mechanisms. Patients with CKD have early cardiac mortality due to anemia and subclinical inflammation; hence, we studied hepcidin as a biomarker in patients with early stage of CKD in relation to anemia and inflammation. In our cross-sectional study, a total of 80 patients were enrolled of whom, there were 25, 26, and 29 patients in CKD stages 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Patients were divided into normal iron level (39), functional iron deficiency (FID) (18), and absolute iron deficiency (AID) (23) based on transferrin saturation and ferritin. We found significantly high level of hepcidin (P <0.05) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) (P <0.05) in FID as compared to AID as well as normal iron level. We also found other inflammatory markers such as albumin, transferrin, and ferritin to be significantly associated with FID. In univariate analysis, hemoglobin (Hb) varied significantly with serum total iron-binding capacity (r = 0.40, P <0.001), log hsCRP (r = -0.32, P <0.01), and log ferritin (r = -0.23, P <0.05); however, Hb was not affected significantly with log hepcidin (r = -0.07, P >0.05). The study indicates that among early CKD patients with FID, there was high level of hepcidin along with other inflammatory parameters, which may be associated with poor cardiovascular disease outcome due to increased inflammation.

How to cite this article:
Sonkar SK, Singh NK, Sonkar GK, Pandey S, Bhosale V, Kumar A, Usman K. Association of hepcidin and anemia in early chronic kidney disease. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2019;30:315-24

How to cite this URL:
Sonkar SK, Singh NK, Sonkar GK, Pandey S, Bhosale V, Kumar A, Usman K. Association of hepcidin and anemia in early chronic kidney disease. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl [serial online] 2019 [cited 2020 Jul 12];30:315-24. Available from: http://www.sjkdt.org/text.asp?2019/30/2/315/256838

   Introduction Top

Early chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem due to increasing incidence and prevalence of diabetes and hypertension which has poor outcomes and are associated with subclinical inflammation.[1],[2] Outcomes of CKD include not only kidney failure but also complications of decreased kidney function such as hyporesponsive anemia and cardiovascular disease (CVD) leading to premature mortality.[2],[3]

Anemia is highly prevalent in CKD and the severity increases as the disease advances and is associated with poor prognosis and increased mortality. Moreover, the leading cause of death in CKD is CVD and hence, there exists a relationship for such adverse outcome in CKD patients.[4]

Hepcidin is being extensively studied for its association with anemia in CKD where it has also been associated with inflammation. Hepcidin is thought to be the major regulator of dietary iron absorption and cellular iron release from macrophages, and it exerts its regulatory function by counteracting the function of ferroportin, the major cellular iron exporter. Hepcidin induces internalization and degradation of ferroportin, which results in increased intracellular iron stores, decreased dietary iron absorption and decreased circulating iron levels which may be the cause for functional iron deficiency (FID).[5]

At a certain concentration, hepcidin may improve host defense by reducing iron concentrations. Since iron is required for microbial growth, low iron levels are thought to be bacteriostatic. Hepcidin has also been found to modulate lipopolysaccharide-induced transcription in cultured macrophages and in vivo mouse models, suggesting that hepcidin plays a role in modulating acute inflammatory responses to bacterial infections.[6],[7]

Hepcidin is upregulated in the setting of chronic inflammation and cancer due to stimulation by cytokines of which interleukin-6 is the most important.[8] Inflammation is associated with increased levels of serum markers of inflammation including serum C-reactive protein (CRP);[9] erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)[10] and other parameters of inflammation, including reduced production of serum albumin[11] and transferrin.[12]

In this study, we assessed the role of hepcidin compared to iron indices and inflammation in early CKD as a prognostic marker.

   Material and Methods Top

A cross-sectional study of one year’s duration was conducted in the Department of Medicine and Nephrology, King George’s Medical University, Lucknow. Adult patients (>18 years) in stable clinical state in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd stage of CKD, with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >90 mL/min, 60–89, and 30–59 mL/min, respectively, calculated from equation from the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease, were enrolled after obtaining consent. Patients having active infection, active cancer, on any hemopoetic drug, thrombosis, blood transfusions within three months preceding the study, immunosuppressive therapy and acute cardiovascular complications (uncontrolled hypertension, acute coronary syndrome, and acute heart failure), were excluded from the study.

Patients with transferrin saturation (TSAT) >20% were considered having normal iron level. Absolute iron deficiency (AID) was taken when TSAT was <20% and the serum ferritin concentration was <100 μg/L, while FID was defined as TSAT <20% and serum ferritin 100–300 μg/L.

All venous blood samples were taken in the morning after an overnight rest. Hematological measurements were made in fresh EDTA venous blood and clotted blood. The plasma and serum obtained after centrifugation was then frozen at –70°C until further laboratory analysis. Hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, red blood count (RBC), hematocrit (HCT), platelet count, iron profile, lipid profile, creatinine, urea, and uric acid were measured using standard laboratory methods (automated system) in a central laboratory. Commercially available kits were used to measure the following: hepcidin-25 (by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method kit of sunred biotech, Shanghai), high-sensitivity CRP (hsCRP) (by sandwich ELISA method kit of sunred biotech, Shanghai). The study was approved by the Institutional Ethical Committee.

   Statistical Analysis Top

Baseline characteristics were assessed with standard descriptive statistics. Normalcy of data was tested by the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test. If the normalcy was rejected then nonparametric test was used. Continuous variables were presented as mean ± standard deviation (SD) and median with interquartile range (as applicable). Quantitative variables were compared using the independent t-test and Mann–Whitney test (for nonparametric data) between two groups. Qualitative variables were compared using the Chi-square test/Fisher’s exact test. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to find correlation between various variables. For nonparametric data, log of data was used to find the correlation.

Multivariate regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between various parameters after adjusting for confounders. The data were entered into Microsoft Excel spreadsheet, and analysis was performed using Statistical software (MS Excel statistical tool package). P <0.05 was considered statistically significant.

   Results Top

A total of 80 patients were enrolled for this study. Majority (70%) of the patients were diabetic, 10% had hypertension, 12% had chronic glomerulonephritis, and 8% had chronic interstitial nephiritis. Among diabetics, 26% of the patients had hypertension in addition. In CKD stages 1, 2, and 3, there were 25, 26, and 29 patients, respectively. With the advanced stage of CKD, Hb decreased significantly [Table 1]. Serum iron and hepcidin levels did not vary significantly between early stages of CKD, but serum ferritin and hsCRP increased significantly. In our study, by using univariate analysis (data not shown), log hepcidin did not show any significant relation with eGFR (r = 0.06, P >0.05). However, the serum total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) (r = 0.45, P <0.001), log hsCRP (r = –0.36, P <0.001), and log ferritin (r = –0.29, P <0.05) showed significant correlation with eGFR.
Table 1: Various parameters in early stage of chronic kidney disease.

Click here to view

We looked for the factors affecting the Hb level which defined the severity of anemia with respect to TIBC, TSAT, log ferritin, log hsCRP, and log hepcidin. In univariate analysis, Hb varied significantly with TIBC (r = 0.40, P <0.001), log hsCRP (r = -0.32, P <0.005) and log ferritin (r = -0.23, P <0.05) while Hb was not affected significantly with serum hepcidin (r = -0.07, P >0.05).

On multiple sequential regression analysis, Hb was more affected with eGFR, followed by log hsCRP and log ferritin; hence, hepcidin did not play an important role in determining Hb level [Table 2].
Table 2: Sequential multivariate regression of hemoglobin with various parameters.

Click here to view

On multiple regression, log normalized hepcidin correlated significantly with log ferritin but not with log hsCRP [Table 3]. However, on dividing hepcidin values into four quartiles, we found that log hepcidin in Q4 (Q1 lowest and Q4 the highest) significantly correlated with log hsCRP (r = 0.48, P <0.05).
Table 3: Multivariate regression for log hepcidin with different variable.

Click here to view

Patients were also divided into three different groups according to iron status; those with normal iron level (39), functional iron deficiency (FID, 18) and AID (23) based on TSAT and ferritin. Thirty-one percent of the patients in stage 3 CKD had FID when compared with 20% in stage 1 and 16% in stage 2 (P >0.05). Hence, FID was present irrespective of the stage of early CKD [Table 4].
Table 4: Number and percentage of patients according to iron status in CKD stages 1, 2, and 3.

Click here to view

In the FID group, serum hepcidin was markedly increased along with hsCRP as compared to AID and normal iron level [Table 5]. Similarly, in Q4 (highest quartile of hepcidin), we found significant correlation with loghsCRP (r = 0.48, P <0.05) and 56% of patients had FID vs 6% of patients who had FID in Q1.
Table 5: Various parameters according to iron status in early stage of chronic kidney disease.

Click here to view

   Discussion Top

The kidney is the major route of hepcidin clearance, but in early stages of CKD, eGFR does not affect hepcidin level and similar results were observed in this study;[12] however, in some studies, hepcidin correlated with eGFR.[13],[14] In the study of Uehata et al, they found no significant difference of hepcidin in the early stage of CKD but significant difference was found in stage 4 and 5 of CKD.[15] Serum TIBC, ferritin, and hsCRP showed significant correlation with the eGFR suggestive of sub-clinical inflammation/uremic toxins [Table 1]. Abraham et al.[16] found inverse correlation between hsCRP and eGFR, but in some studies, no such correlation was found.[17]

This study searched for factors such as various iron parameters and hepcidin for better prediction of anemia in early CKD patients. Studies on anemia in Indian CKD patients identified iron deficiency as a major problem.[18],[19] Iron deficiency is common in the Indian population, with the prevalence of anemia being 33–98%.[20],[21] In addition to true iron deficiency, many CKD patients have FID. These patients have low serum TSAT (a measure of circulating iron) and normal or high serum ferritin (a marker of body iron stores).[22] We found that despite increased TSAT and adequate iron store, with increasing stage of CKD, there was a significant reduction of Hb level. This decreased Hb level could be attributed to reticuloendothelial cell iron blockage due to inflammation. Inflammation has been implicated in many complications in CKD, including malnutrition, atherosclerosis, and decreased iron utilization. Several other studies also have reported the above findings.[23] Decreased Hb was significantly associated with serum total iron binding capacity, hsCRP, ferritin, and eGFR (uremic toxin), which is suggestive of chronic inflammation and also supported by other studies.[24],[25],[26]

Anemia guidelines for CKD patients consider that TSAT and ferritin are important markers of anemia in CKD, and iron replacement is based according to TSAT and serum ferritin levels.[25] Hepcidin lowers the available serum iron levels by limiting iron efflux from the body’s iron stores;[26] therefore, it is plausible that iron might be sequestrated in iron stores as the serum hepcidin level increases. This may cause bone marrow iron deficiency despite sufficient iron in storage sites,[27] suggesting that sufficient serum levels of TSAT and ferritin may not guarantee sufficient production of RBC when the serum hepcidin level is increased. Four mechanisms play a role in determining the value of hepcidin, i.e., regulation by iron status, hypoxia, inflammation, and erythropoietic signals.[28] Previous studies on hepcidin levels revealed a strong positive correlation between serum hepcidin and ferritin concentrations in CKD patients. The serum hepcidin levels in CKD patients have also been shown to be associated with ironrestricted erythropoiesis, as reflected by the relation of high serum hepcidin levels and low Hb concentrations and/or reticulocyte counts.[29],[30] Hepcidin is thought to regulate iron metabolism by counteracting the function of ferroportin, the major cellular iron exporter.[31] In this study, we found a significant correlation between log hepcidin and log ferritin but not with log hepcidin and Hb. Although serum hepcidin levels are correlated with iron status, they have a high short-term interpatient coefficient of variation and are influenced by inflammation.[32] Eleftheriadis et al also found that hepcidin is increased and correlated with ferritin but not with TSAT. In that study, ferroportin in monocytes of HD patients was decreased and did not correlate with hepcidin, an observation that denotes that erythropoiesis disturbances are multifactorial in this population making the use of hepcidin as a marker problematic.[33] Other studies also suggest that hepcidin is not correlated to anemia in the early stage of CKD where Hb was greater than 10 g/dL. However, in later stages of CKD, hepcidin correlated with anemia better than TSAT and ferritin.[26] There is the difficulty of using hepcidin as a marker of iron metabolism in HD and CKD, in general, as found in this study and also supported by other clinical studies.[34],[35] In this study, Hb decreased significantly with decreasing GFR. Hb varied significantly with s. TIBC, s. Ferritin, and hsCRP but not with serum hepcidin. Regarding correlation of Hb with serum hepcidin, our results are consistent with the results of other studies in dialysis patients[34],[36] as well as with studies in nondialysis CKD patients,[26],[37] but not consistent with other studies.[38] These conflicting results may be attributed to difference in iron status of the population studied, difference in inflammatory state or sample size.

CRP has a relatively long half-life of 18 to 20 hours, owing to its stable pentraxin structure. In addition, CRP levels are stable as they do not exhibit diurnal variations or variations in relation to food intake. High-sensitivity ELISA can detect CRP with a sensitivity range of 0.01 to 10 mg/L.[39] These high-sensitivity assays help quantify low grades of systemic inflammation, in the absence of overt systemic inflammatory or immunologic disorders. The hsCRP assays have been standardized.[40] The hsCRP is a widely evaluated biomarker in the search for an ideal biomarker for global CVD risk prediction. It has been incorporated into the various risk scoring system for global CVD risk prediction.[41] On the basis of data obtained from population-based studies, the American Heart Association/Centres for Disease Control Working Group on markers of inflammation in CVD has classified serum hsCRP levels <1, 1–3, and >3 mg/L as low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups for global CVD, respectively. In this study, we found universally high hsCRP level in the early stage of CKD since 70% of patients in our study were diabetic. On dividing patients into four quartiles based on hepcidin level, we found significant correlation between hsCRP and hepcidin in the fourth quartile (Q4: the highest quartile); hence, high level of hepcidin could be marker of poor CVD outcome.[38]

Based on iron level, we classified the patient groups into FID group, AID group and normal iron level. We observed that established markers of inflammation such as CRP and ferritin were higher and negative markers of inflammation such as transferrin and albumin were lower in FID group and other studies also suggest the same.[23],[42] In this study patients with FID, when compared to patients with AID or normal iron level, had significantly higher level of hepcidin along with hsCRP which suggests the role of inflammation in regulation of hepcidin and consistent with other studies.[43] Oral drug like roxadustat (FG-4592) which is HIF-PH inhibitor, increases the production of endogenous erythropoietin (EPO), increases iron mobilization and utilization, and overcomes the suppressive effects of inflammation on red blood cell production. This drug, by reducing hepcidin, would not only improve anemia but also prevent the hazards of injectable erythropoietin and hence, improving overall cardiac outcome.[44],[45] Although Hb was not significantly lowered in FID, as the disease progresses, this group may develop hypo-responsive anemia along with increased cardiovascular mortality.

   Conclusion Top

FID is a major concern in early CKD patients. Hepcidin value has to be standardized universally so that in future it could be clinically used routinely. High level of hepcidin in early CKD patients may be a vital early predictor of hypo-responsive anemia and poor CVD outcome.

Conflict of interest: None declared.

   References Top

Ioannidis I. Diabetes treatment in patients with renal disease: Is the landscape clear enough? World J Diabetes 2014;5:651-8.  Back to cited text no. 1
Vianna HR, Soares CM, Tavares MS, Teixeira MM, Silva AC. Inflammation in chronic kidney disease: The role of cytokines. J Bras Nefrol 2011;33:351-64.  Back to cited text no. 2
Levey AS, Coresh J, Balk E, et al. National kidney foundation practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease: Evaluation, classification, and stratification. Ann Intern Med 2003; 139: 137-47.  Back to cited text no. 3
Go AS, Yang J, Ackerson LM, et al. Hemoglobin level, chronic kidney disease, and the risks of death and hospitalization in adults with chronic heart failure: The anemia in chronic heart failure: Outcomes and resource utilization (ANCHOR) study. Circulation 2006;113:2713-23.  Back to cited text no. 4
Mercadal L, Metzger M, Haymann JP, et al. The relation of hepcidin to iron disorders, inflammation and hemoglobin in chronic kidney disease. PLoS One 2014;9:e99781.  Back to cited text no. 5
Murray MJ, Murray AB, Murray MB, Murray CJ. The adverse effect of iron repletion on the course of certain infections. Br Med J 1978;2: 1113-5.  Back to cited text no. 6
Prentice AM. Iron metabolism, malaria, and other infections: What is all the fuss about? J Nutr 2008;138:2537-41.  Back to cited text no. 7
Young B, Zaritsky J. Hepcidin for clinicians. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2009;4:1384-7.  Back to cited text no. 8
Stenvinkel P, Heimbürger O, Paultre F, et al. Strong association between malnutrition, inflammation, and atherosclerosis in chronic renal failure. Kidney Int 1999;55:1899-911.  Back to cited text no. 9
Fransen J, Welsing PM, de Keijzer RM, Van Riel PL. Disease activity scores using C-reactive protein: CRP may replace ESR in the assessment of RA disease activity. Ann Rheum Dis 2004;62 Suppl 1:151.  Back to cited text no. 10
Don BR, Kaysen G. Serum albumin: Relationship to inflammation and nutrition. Semin Dial 2004;17:432-7.  Back to cited text no. 11
Ganz T, Olbina G, Girelli D, Nemeth E, Westerman M. Immunoassay for human serum hepcidin. Blood 2008;112:4292-7.  Back to cited text no. 12
Wagner M, Ashby DR, Kurtz C, et al. Hepcidin-25 in diabetic chronic kidney disease is predictive for mortality and progression to end stage renal disease. PLoS One 2015;10: e0123072.  Back to cited text no. 13
Peters HP, Laarakkers CM, Swinkels DW, Wetzels JF. Serum hepcidin-25 levels in patients with chronic kidney disease are independent of glomerular filtration rate. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2010;25:848-53.  Back to cited text no. 14
Uehata T, Tomosugi N, Shoji T, et al. Serum hepcidin-25 levels and anemia in non-dialysis chronic kidney disease patients: A cross-sectional study. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2012; 27:1076-83.  Back to cited text no. 15
Abraham G, Sundaram V, Sundaram V, Mathew M, Leslie N, Sathiah V. C-reactive protein, a valuable predictive marker in chronic kidney disease. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2009;20:811-5.  Back to cited text no. 16
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
Menon V, Wang X, Greene T, et al. Relation ship between C-reactive protein, albumin, and cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease. Am J Kidney Dis 2003;42:44-52.  Back to cited text no. 17
Aggarwal HK, Nand N, Singh S, Singh M, Hemant, Kaushik G. Comparison of oral versus intravenous iron therapy in predialysis patients of chronic renal failure receiving recombinant human erythropoietin. J Assoc Physicians India 2003;51:170-4.  Back to cited text no. 18
Gupta M, Kannan M, Gupta S, Saxena R. Contribution of iron deficiency to anemia in chronic renal failure. Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2003;46:563-4.  Back to cited text no. 19
(NFHS-II) NFHS-I: Anemia among Women and Children. Mumbai: International Institute for Population Sciences; 2002. p. 141-57.  Back to cited text no. 20
Sheshadri S, editor. Nutritional Anemia in South Asia. Kathmandu: UNICEF Regional office for South Asia; 1997.  Back to cited text no. 21
Babitt JL, Lin HY. Mechanisms of anemia in CKD. J Am Soc Nephrol 2012:23:1631-4.  Back to cited text no. 22
Reddy GC, Devaki R, Rao P. Iron indices in patients with functional anemia in chronic kidney disease. EJIFCC 2013;24:129-36.  Back to cited text no. 23
Chonchol M, Lippi G, Montagnana M, Muggeo M, Targher G. Association of inflammation with anaemia in patients with chronic kidney disease not requiring chronic dialysis. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2008;23:2879-83.  Back to cited text no. 24
Lee SW, Kim YH, Chung W, et al. Serum hepcidin and iron indices affect anemia status differently according to the kidney function of non-dialysis chronic kidney disease patients: Korean cohort study for outcome in patients with chronic kidney disease (KNOW-CKD). Kidney Blood Press Res 2017:42:1183-92.  Back to cited text no. 25
Ganz T. Hepcidin and iron regulation, 10 years later. Blood 2011:117:4425-33.  Back to cited text no. 26
Ali M, Rigolosi R, Fayemi AO, Braun EV, Frascino J, Singer R. Failure of serum ferritin levels to predict bone-marrow iron content after intravenous iron-dextran therapy. Lancet 1982:1:652-5.  Back to cited text no. 27
Tsuchiya K, Nitta K. Hepcidin is a potential regulator of iron status in chronic kidney disease. Ther Apher Dial 2013:17:1-8.  Back to cited text no. 28
Ashby DR, Gale DP, Busbridge M, et al. Plasma hepcidin levels are elevated but responsive to erythropoietin therapy in renal disease. Kidney Int 2009:75:976-81.  Back to cited text no. 29
Weiss G, Theurl I, Eder S, et al. Serum hepcidin concentration in chronic haemodialysis patients: Associations and effects of dialysis, iron and erythropoietin therapy. Eur J Clin Inves 2009:39:883-90.  Back to cited text no. 30
Donovan A, Lima CA, Pinkus JL, et al. The iron exporter ferroportin/Slc40a1 is essential for iron homeostasis. Cell Metab 2005:1:191200.  Back to cited text no. 31
Ford BA, Eby CS, Scott MG, Coyne DW. Intra-individual variability in serum hepcidin precludes its use as a marker of iron status in hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int 2010:78: 769-73.  Back to cited text no. 32
Eleftheriadis T, Pissas G, Remoundou M, et al. Ferroportin in monocytes of hemodialysis patients and its associations with hepcidin, inflammation, markers of iron status and resistance to erythropoietin. Int Urol Nephrol 2014: 46:161-7.  Back to cited text no. 33
Tessitore N, Girelli D, Campostrini N, et al. Hepcidin is not useful as a biomarker for iron needs in haemodialysis patients on maintenance erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2010:25:3996-4002.  Back to cited text no. 34
van der Weerd NC, Grooteman MP, et al. Hepcidin-25 in chronic hemodialysis patients is related to residual kidney function and not to treatment with erythropoiesis stimulating agents. PLoS One 2012:7:e39783.  Back to cited text no. 35
Kuragano T, Shimonaka Y, Kida A, et al. Determinants of hepcidin in patients on maintenance hemodialysis: Role of inflammation. Am J Nephrol 2010:31:534-40.  Back to cited text no. 36
Zaritsky J, Young B, Wang HJ, et al. Hepcidin – A potential novel biomarker for iron status in chronic kidney disease. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2009:4:1051-6.  Back to cited text no. 37
Valenti L, Girelli D, Valenti GF, et al. HFE mutations modulate the effect of iron on serum hepcidin-25 in chronic hemodialysis patients. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2009:4:1331-7.  Back to cited text no. 38
Roberts WL: CDC, AHA. CDC/AHA workshop on markers of inflammation and cardiovascular disease: Application to clinical and public health practice: Laboratory tests available to assess inflammation - Performance and standardization: A background paper. Circulation 2004:110:e572-6.  Back to cited text no. 39
Ridker PM. Clinical application of C-reactive protein for cardiovascular disease detection and prevention. Circulation 2003:107:363-9.  Back to cited text no. 40
Ridker PM, Buring JE, Rifai N, Cook NR. Development and validation of improved algorithms for the assessment of global cardio vascular risk in women: The Reynolds risk score. JAMA 2007:297:611-9.  Back to cited text no. 41
Walther CP, Gutiérrez OM, Cushman M, et al. Serum albumin concentration and risk of endstage renal disease: The REGARDS study. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2018;33:1770-7.  Back to cited text no. 42
Łukaszyk E, Łukaszyk M, Koc-Żórawska E, Tobolczyk J, Bodzenta-Łukaszyk A, Małyszko J. Iron status and inflammation in early stages of chronic kidney disease. Kidney Blood Press Res 2015;40:366-73.  Back to cited text no. 43
Besarab A, Provenzano R, Hertel J, et al. Randomized placebo-controlled dose-ranging and pharmacodynamics study of roxadustat (FG-4592) to treat anemia in nondialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (NDD-CKD) patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2015; 30:1665-73.  Back to cited text no. 44
Eleftheriadis T, Pissas G, Antoniadi G, Liakopoulos V, Stefanidis I. Kynurenine, by activating aryl hydrocarbon receptor, decreases erythropoietin and increases hepcidin production in HepG2 cells: A new mechanism for anemia of inflammation. Exp Hematol 2016; 44:60-70.  Back to cited text no. 45

Correspondence Address:
Satyendra Kumar Sonkar
Department of Medicine, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh
Login to access the Email id

DOI: 10.4103/1319-2442.256838

PMID: 31031367

Rights and Permissions


  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5]


    Similar in PUBMED
    Search Pubmed for
    Search in Google Scholar for
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

   Material and Methods
   Statistical Analysis
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded436    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal