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Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
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Table of Contents   
ORIGINAL ARTICLE  
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 30  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 634-639
Effect of high-dose Omega 3 on lipid profile and inflammatory markers in chronic hemodialysis children


1 Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Menofia, Egypt
2 Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Menofia, Egypt
3 Department of Quality, Manshea Sultan Hospital, Menoufia University, Menofia, Egypt

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Date of Submission03-Feb-2018
Date of Decision14-Mar-2018
Date of Acceptance18-Mar-2018
Date of Web Publication26-Jun-2019
 

   Abstract 


Atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), and inflammation are important problems in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients on chronic hemodialysis (HD). Prevention of CKD patients of CVD can lower the mortality rate in them. Omega 3 may help in the treatment of inflammation and lipid abnormalities in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on chronic HD. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of high-dose Omega 3 on lipid profile and inflammatory markers in ESRD children on chronic HD. This clinical trial was conducted on 49 ESRD children on chronic HD selected from pediatric HD unit of Menoufia University Hospital. The study was conducted for a period of three months. The selected children were supplemented with 2000-mg Omega 3 tablets daily; lipid profile and inflammatory markers were assessed at the beginning and at the end of the study. Supplementation with high-dose Omega 3 resulted in a highly statistically significant decrease in total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein, interleukin-6, C- reactive protein levels and a highly statistically significant increase in high-density lipoprotein (P <0.001). The differences between hemoglobin, platelets, iron profile, parathyroid hormone, albumin, phosphorus, calcium, potassium, sodium, and efficiency of dialysis before and after Omega 3 supplementation were not statistically significant (P >0.05). Supplementation with highdose Omega 3 caused significant improvement in lipid profile and inflammatory markers of children on chronic HD.

How to cite this article:
Omar ZA, Montser BA, Farahat MA. Effect of high-dose Omega 3 on lipid profile and inflammatory markers in chronic hemodialysis children. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2019;30:634-9

How to cite this URL:
Omar ZA, Montser BA, Farahat MA. Effect of high-dose Omega 3 on lipid profile and inflammatory markers in chronic hemodialysis children. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl [serial online] 2019 [cited 2019 Sep 19];30:634-9. Available from: http://www.sjkdt.org/text.asp?2019/30/3/634/261337



   Introduction Top


Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are at high risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) due to chronic inflammation, dyslipidemia, malnutrition and atherosclerosis.[1] About 50% of endstage renal disease (ESRD) patients on chronic hemodialysis (HD) have elevated inflammatory marker levels.[2] Omega 3 is found in fish oil and is an unsaturated fatty acid with two or three strains that the human body cannot produce.[3],[4] People who consume fish have lower risk for hyperlipidemia, their Omega 3 and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels are higher, and their level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is lower than others.[5] Omega 3 also improves the body’s natural anti-inflammatory response, which counteracts the progression of CVD.[6] Administration of high-dose Omega 3 might cause gastrointestinal complaints (e.g., fishy aftertaste, nausea, and stomach upset).[7] This clinical trial conducted on 49 ESRD children on chronic HD aimed to evaluate the effect of high-dose Omega 3 (2 g/day) for three months on their lipid profile and inflammatory markers.


   Subjects and Methods Top


This clinical trial was conducted on 49 ESRD children on chronic HD selected from pediatric HD unit of Menoufia University Hospital. The study was conducted for a period of three months (from January 2016 to April 2016). The selected 49 children were supplemented by 2000-mg (high dose) Omega 3 capsules (two capsules daily) (Omega 3 plus, SEDICO, Egypt) containing 360-mg eicosapentaenoic acid and 240-mg docosahexaenoic acid for three months in the form of capsules (containing 1 g Omega 3 for each capsule). The Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, approved the study protocol, and informed written consent was obtained from each patient after informing him/her that administration of high-dose Omega 3 might cause gastrointestinal complaints (e.g., fishy aftertaste, nausea, and stomach upset). Inclusion criteria included glomerular filtration rate <10 mL/min/1.73 m2, age <18 years old, and a period of regular HD at least three sessions per week for at least three months before the study. Exclusion criteria were predialysis stages of CKD or a period of regular HD for <3 months before the study or patients on chronic peritoneal dialysis or having primary CVD. Blood samples were collected from all patients at the start and at the end of the study for the measurement of pre- and post-dialysis blood urea nitrogen (BUN), pre- and post-dialysis serum crea-tinine, hemoglobin, platelet count, total iron-binding capacity, serum iron, transferrin saturation, serum ferritin, parathyroid hormone, albumin, phosphorus (Po^, calcium (Ca), potassium (K), sodium (Na), lipid profile [serum triglyceride (TG), cholesterol level, HDL, and LDL], and inflammatory markers [interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP)].


   Statistical Analysis Top


The IBM Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 21.0 (IBM Corp, Armonk, NY, USA) was used for data analysis. Data were expressed by mean, range, standard deviation (SD), frequency, percentage, paired /-test, and Wilcoxon signed-rank test. P < 0.001 was considered statistically highly significant, and P >0.05 was considered statistically nonsignificant.


   Results Top


Regarding personal characteristics and anthro-pometric measurements of the studied 49 patients, their age ranged from eight to 17 years, their mean age was 13.33 ± 2.44 years, the number of males was 24 (49%), the number of females was 25 (51%), the mean height was 132.73 ± 15.27 cm, 37 patients (75.5%) had height below -2 SD on Z score (stunted), the mean body mass index (BMI) was 17.04 ± 3 kg/m2, and 13 patients (26.5 %) had BMI below -2 SD on Z score [Table 1].
Table 1: Personal characteristics and anthropometric measurements of the studied patients.

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The most common cause of renal failure in the studied 49 patients was obstructive uropathy in 19 patients (38.7%), followed by unknown etiology in 16 patients (32.6%), glomerulonephritis in eight patients (16.3%), cystic kidney diseases in four patients (8.1%), and finally, cystinosis in two patients (4%) [Table 2].
Table 2: Causes of renal failure of the studied patients.

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No meaningful changes were found in blood pressure, hemoglobin, platelets, total iron-binding capacity, serum iron, transferrin saturation, serum ferritin, parathyroid hormone level, albumin, efficiency of dialysis [Kt/V and urea reduction ratio (URR)], PO4, Ca, K, and Na levels (P >0.05) [Table 3], although there was a highly statistically significant decrease in total cholesterol (TC), TG, LDL, IL-6, and CRP levels and a highly statistically significant increase in HDL level (P < 0.001) before and after supplementation with high-dose Omega 3 [Table 4].
Table 3: Blood pressure, mean hemoglobin, platelets, iron profile, parathyroid hormone, albumin, efficiency of dialysis, phosphorus, calcium, potassium, and sodium before and after Omega 3 supplementation of the studied patients.

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Table 4: Lipid profile and inflammatory markers (interleukin-6 and С-reactive protein) before and after Omega 3 supplementation of the studied patients.

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   Discussion Top


ESRD has become a serious health problem; it is well known that patients with ESRD on dialysis die at a younger age than healthy population as a result of CVD.[8],[9],[10] Omega 3 plays an important role in reducing inflammation and decreasing oxidative stress and has an antiarrhythmic effect in ESRD patients.[11]

This clinical trial was conducted on 49 ESRD children on chronic HD; their age ranged from 8 to 17 years, their mean age was 13.33 ± 2.44 years, 75.5% of them had height below -2 SD on Z score (stunted), and 26.5% of them had BMI below -2 SD on Z score (wasted), which agree with Lotfy et al[12] who reported in their study that 78% of CKD children on chronic HD had growth retardation. Furthermore, Smith et al[13] in their study reported that the height of more than 35% of children with CKD was <-1.88 SD on Z score.

The most common cause of renal failure in the studied 49 patients was obstructive uro-pathy in 19 patients (38.7%), followed by unknown etiology in 16 patients (32.6%). The findings of Hari et al,[14] Hogg et al,[15] and AlEisa et al[16] agreed with the present study findings that the most common cause of renal failure was obstructive uropathy, while 32% were found with unknown etiology, in contrary to the findings of Hogg et al[15] and AlEisa et al,[16] in which it is a smaller percentage which may be explained by the lack of health care awareness or diagnostic facilities in developing countries.

In this clinical trial, there were no meaningful changes in blood pressure, hemoglobin, platelets, total iron-binding capacity, serum iron, transferrin saturation, serum ferritin, parathyroid hormone level, albumin, efficiency of dialysis (Kt/V and URR), P04, Ca, К, and Na levels (Ρ >0.05). The same results were reported by Taziki et al,[17] Tayebi-Khosroshahi et al,[18] and Svensson et al.[19]

Supplementation of the studied patients with high-dose Omega 3 for three months resulted in a highly statistically significant decrease in TC, TG, LDL, IL-6, and CRP levels and a highly statistically significant increase in HDL (P <0.001). Similar results have been reported by El-Shinnawy et al[20] in their study which reported that 4 g/day of Omega 3 in chronic HD adult patients for six months resulted in a significant decrease in serum TG level, TC level, and LDL together with an increase in HDL level. Furthermore, the findings of Goren et al,[21] Panzetta et al,[22] and Ando et al[23] agreed with the present study findings that Omega 3 had a beneficial effect on the lipid profile of HD patients, but these results disagree with the study done by Elshafie et al[24] who reported that 1 g Omega 3 per day for three months did not result in any statistically significant difference in LDL, HDL, and TC levels of chronic HD children. Furthermore, Omrani et al[25] found that 1 g daily of Omega 3 for 10 weeks in chronic HD patients only showed significant decrease of serum TC level, but not other lipids. This difference in results may be due to the low dose of Omega 3 (1 g Omega 3) per day used by Elshafie et al[24] and Omrani et al[25] in their studies.

Tayyebi-Khosroshahi et al[26] agreed with the present study results as they reported that 3 g of Omega 3 per day for three months in chronic HD patients showed a reduction of inflammatory markers (CRP and IL-6). Furthermore, Dashti et al[27] reported in their study that 1800 mg of Omega-3 fatty acids per day for 4 months relatively improved high-sensitivity CRP and IL-6 of chronic HD patients. Furthermore, Daud et al[28] reported that in chronic HD patients, 2.4 g Omega 3 after their routine dialysis session for six months had beneficial effects on CRP levels. Fiedler et al[29] reported that using of only high doses of Omega 3 for a longer time could decrease inflammatory marker levels of CKD patients on regular HD.


   Conclusion Top


Supplementation with high dose Omega 3 in this study population caused significant improvement of lipid profile and inflammatory markers of children on chronic hemodialysis. This needs to be evaluated in a larger multi centric study with long-term follow up to see if this leads to change in clinical outcomes such as cardiovascular events and infections.

Conflict of interest: None declared.



 
   References Top

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Taziki O, Lessan-Pezeshki M, Akha O, Vasheghani F. The effect of low dose omega-3 on plasma lipids in hemodialysis patients. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2007;18:571-6.  Back to cited text no. 17
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Correspondence Address:
Zein Abdellatif Omar
Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Menofia
Egypt
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DOI: 10.4103/1319-2442.261337

PMID: 31249227

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    Abstract
   Introduction
   Subjects and Methods
   Statistical Analysis
   Results
   Discussion
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