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Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
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BRIEF COMMUNICATION Table of Contents   
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 31  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 160-168
Clinical profile and outcomes of De novo posttransplant thrombotic microangiopathy


1 Departmenta of Nephrology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Departmenta of Radiodiagnosis, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
3 Departmenta of Pathology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Anupma Kaul
Department of Nephrology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh
India
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DOI: 10.4103/1319-2442.279936

PMID: 32129209

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Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) after kidney transplant is rather uncommon but an important reversible cause of graft loss. This retrospective study of biopsy-proven posttransplant TMA was done to identify the important etiological factors, clinical features, and outcomes of post transplant TMA in a tertiary care referral hospital in northern India. This retrospective study was conducted among all renal transplant recipients who presented with graft dysfunction between 1989 and 2015. All the cases were looked for their etiology, clinical course, treatment modalities, and renal outcomes. The study was conducted in accord with prevailing ethical principles and reviewed by our own institutional review board. Seventeen patients out of 2000 (0.008%) transplants done during the study period had posttransplant TMA, out of which all the patients had de novo TMA, and the median time of presentation after transplantation was four months. Systemic TMA was noted in only four patients. Biopsy revealed associated rejection in five patients and associated calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) toxicity in 12 patients. Patients with TMA due to CNI toxicity were managed with CNI reduction or switching to alternate CNI or mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors. In addition, antithymocyte globulin and plasma exchange were used in rejection-associated TMA. While four out of 12 patients (33%) in CNI-related TMA developed end-stage renal disease (ESRD), all patients in rejection-associated TMA developed ESRD. The overall one-year graft survival was 47%, whereas five- and 10-year survival was 35%. There was no significant difference in graft survival between localized and systemic TMAs (P = 0.4). Posttransplant TMA should be suspected even if there are no systemic features of hemolysis and early graft biopsy and prompt action is needed. The occurrence of TMA in the setting of rejection is associated with grave prognosis.


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