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Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
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   2016| November  | Volume 27 | Issue 7  
    Online since December 1, 2016

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
The dialysis outcomes and practice patterns study phase 5 in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries: Design and study methods
Ronald L Pisoni, Brian A Bieber, Jamal Al Wakeel, Sameer Al Arrayed, Naser Alkandari, Mohamed Hassan, Ayman Karkar, Nabil M Al Lawati, Fadwa Al Ali, Justin M Albert, Bruce M Robinson, GCC-DOPPS 5 Study Group
November 2016, 27(7):1-11
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.194878  PMID:27991474
The Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS) is an international prospective cohort study of the relationships between hemodialysis (HD) care practices and HD patient outcomes. The DOPPS began in 1996, in the United States, and has since expanded to 21 countries, collecting detailed data from >75,000 HD patients, with >200 scientific publications, focused on describing HD practices associated with improved HD patient outcomes. The goal of DOPPS is to help HD patients "live better and live longer." Starting in 2012, the DOPPS was able to expand to all six of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, namely, Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. The DOPPS study design consists of selecting HD facilities for study participation in each country to represent the different types of HD facilities and geographic regions within each GCC country. Within each study site, HD patients were randomly selected for detailed data collection to represent the HD practices within each participating HD facility. Altogether, 41 HD facilities have participated in the GCC-DOPPS Phase 5 study including 20 facilities from Saudi Arabia, nine from the United Arab Emirates, four each from Kuwait and Oman, two from Qatar, and one from Bahrain. Herein, we provide a detailed description of the study design and methods, data collection, study management, scientific investigator oversight and guidance, and study governance and support for the GCCDOPPS Phase 5 study.
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Demographics and key clinical characteristics of hemodialysis patients from the Gulf Cooperation Council countries enrolled in the dialysis outcomes and practice patterns study phase 5 (2012-2015)
Ali AlSahow, Mona AlRukhaimi, Jamal Al Wakeel, Saeed M. G. Al-Ghamdi, Sumaya AlGhareeb, Fadwa AlAli, Issa Al Salmi, Bassam AlHelal, Mohammed AlGhonaim, Brian A Bieber, Ronald L Pisoni, GCC-DOPPS 5 Study Group
November 2016, 27(7):12-23
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.194885  PMID:27991475
  2,275 1,496 -
Hemodialysis delivery, dialysis dose achievement, and vascular access types in hemodialysis patients from the Gulf Cooperation Council countries enrolled in the dialysis outcomes and practice patterns study phase 5 (2012-2015)
Anas AlYousef, Sumaya AlGhareeb, Jamal Al Wakeel, Saeed M. G. Al-Ghamdi, Brian A Bieber, Mohamad Hassan, Yacoub Al Maimani, Naser Alkandari, Haroun Z Ahmed, Ashraf Fawzy, Ronald L Pisoni, GCC-DOPPS 5 Study Group
November 2016, 27(7):42-50
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.194889  PMID:27991478
The prospective observational Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS) was initiated in late 2012 in national samples of hemodialysis (HD) units (n = 41 study sites) in all six Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates). For many years, guidelines have recommended single pool Kt/V ≥1.2 as the minimum adequate dose for chronic HD patients. Here, we report initial DOPPS results regarding HD practices related to dialysis dose achievement in the GCC. A total of 928 adult HD patients were included in this analysis from 41 centers representing all six GCC countries. Baseline descriptive statistics (e.g., mean, standard deviation, median, interquartile range, or percentage) were calculated for the study sample. Results were weighted according to the fraction of HD patients sampled within each participating study site. Mean age varied between 51 years in Bahrain, Oman, and Saudi Arabia, 55 years in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Kuwait, and 62 years in Qatar. Mean body mass index (BMI) was the lowest in Oman patients (23.9 kg/m 2 , but the remaining GCC countries had mean BMIs of 25.7-28.9 kg/m 2 and substantial fractions of overweight patients. Median dialysis vintage ranged from 1.52 years in Kuwait to 3.52 years in Oman. Mean treatment time per session varied from 202 min in Saudi Arabia to 230 min in Qatar while mean blood flow rate (BFR) ranged between 267 mL/min in Oman and 310 mL/min in Saudi Arabia. Interdialytic weight gain varied considerably among GCC countries between 3.1 and 4.0 kg. Central venous catheter use was high among GCC countries, ranging from 29% in Oman to 56% in Kuwait, with other countries averaging 30-40% catheter use. Data were available only for 50-76% of patients in four GCC countries (Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and UAE) for calculating single pool Kt/V to indicate dialysis adequacy. When calculated for patients with vintage >1 year and dialyzing three times per week, mean single pool Kt/V was highest in Qatar and the UAE (1.50-1.51), intermediate in Kuwait (1.35), and lowest in Saudi Arabia (1.29). A higher risk of mortality was observed for patients having a single pool Kt/V <1.2 (vs. ≥1.2) [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-2.92]. Achievement of Kt/V in the GCC, although lower than in other DOPPS regions such as Europe/ANZ and North America, was similar to that in Japan. Japan and the GCC also share the practice of having a lower blood volume filtered per HD session per kg body weight. These findings suggest that increasing mean BFR and treatment time in the GCC, along with reducing catheter use, would substantially increase overall achievement of Kt/V >1.2 in the GCC, and hence, may improve survival. These mortality findings will need to be confirmed with up-coming GCC-DOPPS 6 analysis.
  2,153 386 -
Nutritional status and outcomes in hemodialysis patients from the Gulf Cooperation Council countries enrolled in the dialysis outcome and practice patterns study phase 5 (2012-2015)
Fadwa S Al-Ali, Brian A Bieber, Ronald L Pisoni, Hany Ezzat, Mohammed AlGhonaim, Fayez AlHejaili, Sumaya AlGhareeb, Abdulkarim Saleh, Yacoub Al Maimani, Anas Alyousef, Haroun Z Ahmed, Abdullah Hamad, GCC-DOPPS 5 Study Group
November 2016, 27(7):31-41
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.194888  PMID:27991477
Nutrition is an important factor in maintaining good health of hemodialysis (HD) patients, affecting their morbidity and mortality. The Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS) is an international observational study assessing differences in dialysis practices and outcomes across >20 countries. Here, we present the results for the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries regarding nutrition data and its relationship with outcomes as a part of the DOPPS Phase 5 study (2012-2015). Data were from Phase 5 of the DOPPS. Main analyses were based on 927 adult chronic HD patients enrolled at the start of the GCC-DOPPS Phase 5 study from each of the 40 randomly selected GCC HD facilities from Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. Within each participating facility, 20-30 patients were randomly selected, depending on facility size. Analysis showed minor differences across GCC countries in age, albumin levels, nutrition supplement use, and being bothered by the lack of appetite. Elderly (>60 years old) and diabetic HD patients displayed poorer nutritional parameters than young and nondiabetic patients. A low albumin level (<3.2 g/dL) was associated with the highest risk of mortality with a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.47 (P <0.0001) followed by diabetes with HR 1.57 (P <0.04) and older age [HR= 1.27/10 years older (P <0.01)]. Quality of life measures physical component summary and mental component summary correlated negatively with albumin <3.2 g/dL (−2.18 and −5.5, respectively, P <0.05 for each), and with serum creatinine level <7.5 mg/dL (−2.29 and −2.1 respectively, P <0.05 for each. We are presenting the first study of the nutrition status and outcomes for HD patients in the GCC countries in DOPPS. Our results were mostly comparable to findings in previous trials in other countries. Although the data are observational, our study provides good insight into aspects of nutrition in the GCC countries and can be compared to the rest of the world to better understand trends and practice differences.
  2,115 409 -
Mineral bone disorder and its management among hemodialysis patients in the Gulf Cooperation Council: Initial findings from the dialysis outcomes and practice patterns study (2012-2015)
Issa Al Salmi, Mona AlRukhaimi, Ali AlSahow, Faisal A. M. Shaheen, Saeed M. G. Al-Ghamdi, Fadwa AlAli, Sumaya AlGhareeb, Yacoub Al Maimani, Mohammed AlGhonaim, Brian Bieber, Francesca Tentori, Ronald L Pisoni, GCC-DOPPS 5 Study Group
November 2016, 27(7):62-80
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.194902  PMID:27991480
The prospective cohort Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS) initiated data collection in national samples of hemodialysis (HD) units (total of 41 study sites) in all six Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates) in late 2012. Here, we report initial results regarding mineral bone disorders (MBDs) and its management in the GCC countries. Forty-one randomly selected HD facilities, treating >23 HD patients each, were sampled and represent care for >95% of GCC HD patients. Descriptive results for the GCC countries based on a random sample of 20-30 HD patients in each study facility. Initial results for the GCC are from 931 HD patients treated at 41 dialysis units (ranging from 1 unit in Bahrain to 21 in Saudi Arabia). Results are presented as weighted estimates, accounting for the sampling fraction in each unit. Baseline descriptive statistics (e.g., mean, median, or percentage), weighted by facility sampling fraction were calculated for the study sample. For analyses examining the percent of facility patients having (a) serum phosphorus >6.0 mg/dL or (b) parathyroid hormone (PTH) >600 pg/mL, analyses were restricted to facilities having at least 10 HD patients with a reported serum phosphorus or PTH measurement, respectively. Logistic regression analyses of the indicated binary outcomes were based on the use of generalized estimating equations and were adjusted for GCC country, patient age category (<45 years, 45-65 years, and >65 years old), sex, and whether the patient was diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. Logistic models accounted for clustering of patients within facilities, assuming an exchangeable working correlation matrix. Mean age of HD patients in the GCC countries was 53 years vs. 61-64 years in the three other DOPPS regions. MBD markers showed slightly lower mean serum Calcium in the GCC countries, similar mean serum phosphorus, and intermediate median PTH levels compared with the three other DOPPS regions. Among GCC countries, the country mean value of MBD markers ranged from 8.6-9.0 mg/dL for serum calcium, 4.4-5.4 mg/dL for serum phosphorus, whereas median PTH ranged from 163-389 pg/mL. Similar to other DOPPS regions, PTH was higher among patients who were younger or without diabetes, and serum phosphorus was lower with older age (P <0.001 for each). History of parathyroidectomy was lower in the GCC countries versus other regions but did not differ when adjusted for age and dialysis vintage. Among treatments used for managing MBD, the GCC countries showed one of the highest uses of cinacalcet (24%) and phosphorus binder use (81%), whereas intravenous Vitamin D use (24%) was slightly higher than that in EURANZ. A much larger fraction of HD patients in the GCC countries had a dialysate calcium bath ≥3.5 mEq/L (43%) versus 0-4% in the three other DOPPS regions. Although many aspects of MBD management and MBD marker achievement are similar in the GCC countries to that seen in other DOPPS study regions, large variability was seen across countries and facilities in the GCC. Mean serum calcium was lower in the GCC despite the much greater use of dialysate Ca of ~3.5 mEq/L which may be due to the relatively low use of vitamin D and higher cinacalcet use, meriting further study. Future work will focus on GCC facility HD practices and patient characteristics most strongly related to the achievement of MBD target levels and associated outcomes.
  1,964 435 -
Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular comorbidities in hemodialysis patients from the Gulf Cooperation Council countries enrolled in the dialysis outcome and practice pattern study phase 5 (2012-2015)
Faissal A. M. Shaheen, Jamal Al Wakeel, Saeed M. G. Al-Ghamdi, Bassam Alhelal, Sumaya AlGhareeb, Ali Abdulkarim Al Obaidli, Issa AlSalmi, Hani Ezzat Abdulaziz, Brian A Bieber, Ronald L Pisoni, GCC-DOPPS 5 Study Group
November 2016, 27(7):24-30
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.194886  PMID:27991476
To determine the prevalence of cardiovascular comorbidities and their active risk factors in the selected hemodialysis centers in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, the Dialysis Outcome and Practice Pattern Study (DOPPS) was performed on 40 dialysis centers in the six GCC countries from June 2012 to May 2015. There were 21 dialysis centers from Saudi Arabia, nine from the United Arab Emirates (UAE), four from Kuwait, four from Oman, two from Qatar, and one from Bahrain. There were 922 patients participating in the study; 419 patients from Saudi Arabia, 144 from the UAE, 164 from Kuwait, 89 from Oman, 58 from Qatar, and 25 from Bahrain. Baseline data and laboratory investigations were obtained from every study patient, and the patients with any new events, change of dialysis prescription, or death were reported to the DOPPS main center during follow-up. The median age of the patients in the GCC centers was 55 years (range 32- 80 years), and the median percentage of males was 57%. The most common cause of chronic kidney disease among the study patients was diabetes mellitus (median: 43%) followed by hypertension (median: 29%) and glomerulonephritis (median: 9%). Hypertension (median 90%) and diabetes mellitus (median 52%) were the most common predisposing comorbidities to cardiovascular events in the study patients. The median ratios of patients with coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, and congestive heart failure were 34%, 23%, and 24%, respectively. The median ratio for cerebrovascular comorbidities was 9%. The median prevalence of the factors that may predispose to the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular comorbidities such as gender of the patients, adequacy of dialysis, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, levels of anemia, parathormone levels, and calcium and phosphorus levels in the GCC countries were comparable with those in the previous DOPPS in other countries.
  1,928 457 -
Gulf Cooperation Council-dialysis outcomes and practice patterns study: An overview of anemia management trends at the regional and country specific levels in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries
Samra Abouchacra, Ali Obaidli, Saeed M. G. Al-Ghamdi, Jamal Al Wakeel, Issa Al Salmi, Sumaya Al Ghareeb, Mohammad Al Azmi, Mohammed Elsayed, Brian A Bieber, Ronald L Pisoni, GCC-DOPPS 5 Study Group
November 2016, 27(7):51-61
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.194895  PMID:27991479
The Gulf Cooperation Council-Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (GCC-DOPPS) marks the joining of the six Gulf region countries including Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates to the main DOPPS study in 2012. The current review is a descriptive reporting on results related to the management of anemia from these countries. Our data demonstrate consistent anemia management patterns across the GCC countries allowing the achievement of international treatment levels. Overall, the majority of hemodialysis patients were prescribed appropriate erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) and supplemental iron, enabling the attainment of mean hemoglobin (Hb) level of 10.9 g/dL. Comparisons of the individual country profiles reveal individual differences in the choice and mode of ESA and iron administration. However, all countries displayed good compliance with guideline recommendations. The same challenges as elsewhere are faced in the GCC, with respect to optimizing Hb levels and judiciously using ESA and iron supplements. Some opportunities exist for focused efforts to fine tune inter-facility variability in anemia management based on continued data tracking. The latter is vital in enabling adopting new trends to further improve not only anemia management but also the wholesome care of dialysis patients.
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