Figure 3: Induction of VDR in MMCs in vitro. Representative photomicrographs of immunohistochemistry staining for MMCs induced for 3, 6 or 9 days in medium supplemented with ADR/rat serum (a), renal cortex homogenate (e), normal rat serum (b), or renal cortex homogenate (f). Standard culture medium consisting of DMEM with 10% FBS was used as a control (c). Quantitative analysis of VDR expression (d and h). Values are means ± SE (n = 3), P < 0.01 (400×).