Figure 1: Health care services for identification and management of chronic kidney disease by country income level. (a) Primary care (i.e., basic health facilities at community levels [e.g., clinics, dispensaries, and small local hospitals]). (b) Secondary/specialty care (i.e., health facilities at a level higher than primary care [e.g., clinics, hospitals, and academic centers]). eGFR: estimated glomerular filtration rate, HbA1C: Glycated hemoglobin, UACR: Urine albumin-tocreatinine-ratio, UPCR: Urine protein-to-creatinine ratio. Data from Bello et al and Htay et al.