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Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
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LETTER TO THE EDITOR Table of Contents   
Year : 1997  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 157-158
Authors' Reply

Hemodialysis Section, King Fahd Central Hospital, P.O. Box 204, Gizan, Saudi Arabia

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How to cite this article:
Subramanian P T. Authors' Reply. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 1997;8:157-8

How to cite this URL:
Subramanian P T. Authors' Reply. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl [serial online] 1997 [cited 2021 May 17];8:157-8. Available from: https://www.sjkdt.org/text.asp?1997/8/2/157/39393
I thank Dr. Subramanian for his valuable supplement information regarding the editorial entitled "History of Development of Nephrology". However, I would like to emphasize that the objective of this editorial was to highlight and summarize the different milestones concerning kidney function and its characteristics during the last three centuries, which culminated in the second half of this century with the birth of nephrology as a distinct speciality in modern medicine [1] . These distant historical events could be forgotten by current nephrologists, and are not easily found in the current books and periodical magazines in a concise fashion.

Concerning the developments which were made in the last thirty years, and after the start of clinical practice of nephrology, we noted that they are so immense, and were not mentioned in detail, because one can find them easily in the present books and magazines pertaining to nephrology. It is well known that the therapeutic application of erythropoietin started in the late 1970's [2] , and since this matter was mentioned by Dr. Subramanian, I think that we should underline the other important hormonal therapeutic applications like converting enzyme inhibitor drugs [3],[4] , urokinase [5],[6] , and the active metabolite of vitamin D [7] , all of which started in the late 1970's. The same logic is also applicable to the development of percutaneous catheterization and its application in dialysis fields, as well as the development of vascular access. I entirely agree with Dr. Subramanian about the added important information related to the history of practice of peritoneal dialysis. Concerning renal transplantation, Dr. Subramanian mentioned that "Du Voronoy of Russia (Ukraine) is credited for the first technically successful human renal transplant in April 1933". But in fact this transplanted kidney never worked, and by 1949, Du Voronoy reported a total of six such transplants, though no substantial function had occurred in any [8] . Therefore, I believe that the actual beginning of renal transplantation occurred in the mid 1950's, when two groups simultaneously restarted human kidney transplantation in Paris and Boston. The Paris series included a case reported by Hamburger in 1953 of first live related kidney transplant from a mother to her son, and the Boston activity report of a successful transplant of a kidney from one twin to another in 1954. From then on, a number of such cases were successfully transplanted in USA and Europe [9] .

   References Top

1.Al-Attar B. History of development of nephrology. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transplant 1996;7:373-7.  Back to cited text no. 1    
2.Ogle JW, Lange RD, Dunn CD. Production of erythropoietin in vitro: a review. In-vitro 1978;14(11):945-50.  Back to cited text no. 2    
3.Heel RC, Broyden RN, Speight TM, Avery GS. Captopril: a preliminary review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic efficacy. Drugs 1980;20(6):409-52.  Back to cited text no. 3    
4.Macgregor GA, Markandu ND, Roulston JE, Jones JC. Essential hypertension: effect of an oral inhibitor of angiotensin­converting enzyme. Br Med J 1979;2(6198):1106-9.  Back to cited text no. 4    
5.Tibbutt DA, Chesterman CN. Pulmonary embolism: current therapeutic concepts. Drugs 1976;ll(3):161-92.  Back to cited text no. 5    
6.Sugikachi A, Kawahara T, Kodama J, Kikkawa Y, Takagi K. Antithrombogenicity of immobilized urokinase and its clinical significance. Blut 1978;37(l):31-6.  Back to cited text no. 6    
7.Rubinger D, Friedlaender MM, Bernheim J, Shachner E, Ronen M, Czaczkes WJ. Long-term effects of 1 atpha­hydroxycholecalciferol therapy in chronic hemodiafysis patients. Isr J Med Sci 1982;18(10):1019-26.  Back to cited text no. 7    
8.Hamilton D. Kidney transplantation: a history; kidney transplantation-principles and practice. Hamilton 1988;1-13.  Back to cited text no. 8    
9.Merrill JP. A historical perspective of renal transplantation. Proc CHn Dial Transplant Forum 1979;9:221-5.  Back to cited text no. 9    

Correspondence Address:
P T Subramanian
Hemodialysis Section, King Fahd Central Hospital, P.O. Box 204, Gizan
Saudi Arabia
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