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Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
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Year : 1998  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 231-236
Pathogenesis of Acute Renal Failure: Shock-Kidneys

21 Common Road, North Leigh, Oxford, England, United Kingdom

Correspondence Address:
E Nigel Wardle
21 Common road, North Leigh, Oxford, England
United Kingdom
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PMID: 18408295

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Causes of acute renal failure (ARF) are summarized. The article focuses on "shock kidneys" as they occur following traumatic or septic shock. There may be low-grade intermittent but persisting endotoxemia in the former together with other factors like rhabdomyolysis, and marked endotoxemia at least for a few hours in the latter. Endotoxin is a prime cause of release of noxious cytokines like tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFa). At present, many studies support the evidence for its role in multi-organ failure (MOF). One can account for endotoxemia along with bacterial translocation through the gastrointestinal mucosa if there is transient mesenteric ischemia during shock. Hence, monocyte­macrophages can be stimulated to release their cytokines that predispose to MOF. The cell biology of renal tubular changes in ARF is then briefly discussed in order to mention new therapeutic approaches.

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