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Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
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COUNTRY REPORT Table of Contents   
Year : 1998  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 459-460
Renal Replacement Therapy in Sultanate of Oman

Department of Nephrology, Royal Hospital, Muscat, Oman

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How to cite this article:
Al-Marhuby H. Renal Replacement Therapy in Sultanate of Oman. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 1998;9:459-60

How to cite this URL:
Al-Marhuby H. Renal Replacement Therapy in Sultanate of Oman. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl [serial online] 1998 [cited 2021 Apr 15];9:459-60. Available from: https://www.sjkdt.org/text.asp?1998/9/4/459/39107
Oman is one of the Arab Countries in the Southeast corner of the Arab peninsula. Its area is 311,300 square kilometers with two million inhabitants. This country has witnessed a rapid development over the past thirty years to become one of the rich states in the Arab Gulf area. Health services have improved accordingly, including services for patients with chronic renal failure.

The incidence of end-stage renal failure in this country is estimated to be around 120 million inhabitants annually. The causes of renal failure are still mostly uncertain but assumed to be chronic glomerulonephritis, since many cases present at advanced stage. However, diabetes mellitus forms 14.5% of the causes of renal failure in this population. The services for renal failure patients are fully paid for by the government.

   Dialysis in Oman Top

Dialysis services were started in Oman in the form of intermittent peritoneal dialysis (IPD) in AI-Nahdha hospital in the capital Muscat in 1980. In the same hospital, hemodialysis was introduced later in 1983. The first patient treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) was also in Royal hospital in 1992.

At present, there are 10 hemodialysis centers in Oman with a total of 73 hemodialysis machines. There is, however, one active CAPD center.

Currently, there are 345 hemodialysis and three CAPD patients in Oman, while there is none on 1PD.

Hemodialysis patients in Oman receive an average of eight hours dialysis per patient weekly and the most common type of permanent vascular access used is arteriovenous fistula. Cuprophane dialyzers are the most commonly used in this country. Furthermore, reuse is not practiced. How­ever, there are only 18.5% of hemodialysis patients on bicarbonate dialysis. There are currently 23% of hemodialysis patients on erythropoietin as a replacement therapy for anemia associated with renal failure.

Interestingly, only 17.6% of the hemodialysis patients in Oman have positive anti­hepatitis C antibodies. This is rather low in comparison with the nearby countries. [1],[2],[3],[4] The percentage of patients with positive hepatitis B antigen is around 6.6% in hemodialysis patients, which is comparable to the neighboring countries. [1],[2],[3],[4] .

The average mortality rate among the hemodialysis patients is 10% annually. Cardiovascular disease and infection are the most common causes of death in this population.

   Renal Transplantation in Oman Top

The first renal transplant was performed in the Royal hospital in Muscat in 1988. This was from a living related donor. The Royal hospital continues to be the only transplant center in Oman up till now. Sixty-one renal transplants from living donors have been performed in Oman, while 13 were from cadaveric donors. However, no operation from living unrelated donors has been performed inside this country. Some operations have been performed outside Oman and the patients arc being followed­up inside. Currently, the total number of transplanted patients followed up is around 174 patients.

Cyclosporine-based double and triple immunosuppressive therapy is used in almost all of the renal transplant patients in Oman. The average mortality among these patients is 6% annually and septicemia remains the most common cause.

There is religions acceptance of organ donation and transplantation from the living and the dead donors. Despite that, the efforts to increase the awareness of the public to the importance of organ donation and transplantation are still inadequate and need escalation. We hope to further increase the number of renal transplants to match the rising number of renal failure patients in need of transplantation. At present, Oman is in the process of establishing a coordinating center for promotion of organ donation.

   References Top

1.Said RA. Hamzch YY, Mehyar NS, Rababah MS. Hepatitis C vims infection in hemodialysis patients in Jordan. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transplant 1995;6(2): 140-43.  Back to cited text no. 1    
2.Shahccn FAM Huraib SO. Al-Rasheed R. et al. Prevalence of hepatitis C antibodies among hemodialysis patients in the Western province of Saudi Arabia. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transplant 1995:6(2): 136-39.  Back to cited text no. 2    
3.El-Rcshaid K, Kapoor M Sugalhan T. Al Mufti S. Al Hilah N. Hepatitis C virus infection m patients on maintenance dialysis in Kuwait. Epidemiological profile and efficacy of prophylaxis. Saudi J K­idney Dis Transplant 1995;6(2): 144-50.  Back to cited text no. 3    
4.El-Shahat YI, Varma S. Bari MZ, Nawaz MS, Abdulrahman S. Pingle A. Hepatitis C virus infection among dialysis patients in United Arab Emirates. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transplant I995;6(2): 157-62.  Back to cited text no. 4    

Correspondence Address:
Hamoud Al-Marhuby
Department of Nephrology, Royal Hospital, Muscat
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PMID: 18408319

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