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Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
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ARTICLE Table of Contents   
Year : 2000  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 405-413
Diabetic Glomerulopathy: Pathogenesis and Management

1 Department of Nephrology, University of Heidelberg, Germany
2 Department of Nephrology, Ras Al Khaimah, United Arab Emirates

Correspondence Address:
Susanne Schmidt
Department of Nephrology, University of Heidelberg, Bergheimer Str. 58 D-69115 Heidelberg,
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PMID: 18209332

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Although not all renal disease that diabetic patients develop is due to diabetic glomerulosclerosis, the great majority of patients progressing to advanced renal failure suffer from diffuse or nodular (Kimmelstiel Wilson's) diabetic glomerulosclerosis. This condition has become the single most frequent cause of end-stage renal failure in the Western world. Recent studies indicate that an interplay between genetic predisposition and other factors such as hyperglycemia, blood pressure, age, gender, smoking and ethnicity, predispose to nephropathy both in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. It has also become clear that trace albuminuria ("microalbuminuria") provides a unique opportunity to recognize incipient renal involvement early on, particularly in type 1 and less specifically in type 2 diabetes. Increasing evidence indicates that early intervention delays progression of nephropathy. Factors which promote progression of nephropathy include hypertension, proteinuria, smoking, poor glycemic control and, less certainly, high dietary protein intake and hyperlipidemia. The most important strategies to combat the medical catastrophe of increasing numbers of diabetic patients with end-stage renal failure include (i) prevention of diabetes (mainly type 2), (ii) glycemic control to prevent onset of renal involvement and (iii) meticulous antihypertensive treatment to avoid progression of nephropathy. Survival of diabetic patients on dialysis and after transplantation is inferior to that of non-diabetic patients, mainly because of high rate of cardiovascular death. There is consensus that in the absence of major vascular disease the best treatment is renal transplantation in the type 2 diabetic patient and combined kidney and pancreas transplantation in the type 1 diabetic patient.

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