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Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
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Year : 2000  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 421-429
Spectrum of Glomerulonephritis in Egypt

Department of Internal Medicine and Pathology, Cairo University, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
Rashad S Barsoum
The Cairo Kidney Center, P.O. Box 91, Bab-El-Louk, Cairo 11513
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PMID: 18209334

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Identification of the profile of glomerular disease in a particular geographical region is of fundamental academic, clinical and epidemiological importance. It helps in the recognition of specific risk factors and subsequent planning for adequate prevention. In the present study, 1234 consecutive renal biopsies referred to the nephropathology team of Cairo University over two years were retrospectively analyzed. The main indications for biopsy included nephrotic syndrome, persistent sub-nephrotic proteinuria, recurrent hematuria, suspected secondary hypertension, lupus nephritis and acute and chronic renal failure of undetermined etiology. Proliferative forms of glomerulonephritis [GN] (32.1%) and focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis [FSGS] were the most prevalent lesions among patients with the nephrotic syndrome (22.6%). In subjects with sub­nephrotic proteinuria, FSGS was the principal lesion followed by proliferative lesions. Although all forms of GN were encountered in those presenting with recurrent hematuria, mesangioproliferative GN and FSGS were significantly more frequent. IgA glomerular deposits were detected in 9.8% of all GNs and 15% of those presenting with hematuria. One half of the biopsies obtained for the assessment of suspected secondary hypertension showed only changes compatible with the effect of hypertension per se, i.e. nephroangiosclerosis. On the other hand, a parenchymal renal lesion was found in 52.9% of biopsies. The common glomerular pathologies in patients with lupus nephritis were Classes III and IV. Among patients with chronic renal failure, the predominant lesion was chronic interstitial nephritis (32.6%). An acute interstitial inflammatory element was also detected in 8.4% of cases. About one third of the biopsies obtained for acute renal failure showed acute tubular (11%) or cortical (13.2%) necrosis. Another third showed vasculitis (17.6%) or acute interstitial nephritis (14.3%), and the remaining showed chronic lesions in which the rapid deterioration was probably functional.

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