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Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
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Year : 2008  |  Volume : 19  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 329-345
Contribution of Inflammation to Vascular Disease in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients

Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institute, Karolinska University Hospital at Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden

Correspondence Address:
Mohamed E Suliman
Department of Renal Medicine, K56 Karolinska University Hospital at Huddinge 141 86 Stockholm
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PMID: 18445891

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Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by an exceptionally high mortality rate, much of which results from cardiovascular disease (CVD). Chronic low-grade inflammation, as evidenced by increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and C-reactive protein (CRP), is a common feature of CKD and may cause atherosclerotic CVD through various pathogenetic mechanisms. Evidence suggests that persistent inflammation may also be a risk factor for progression of CKD, which may result in a vicious inflammation-driven circle. The causes of inflammation in CKD are multifactorial. The influence of various comorbidities may contribute to inflammation in the setting of progressive loss of renal function. Available data suggest that pro-inflammatory cytokines also play a central role in the genesis of the metabolic syndrome. There is a lack of epidemiological data on the prevalence and consequences of inflammation in relation to protein-energy wasting (PEW) and CVD in CKD patients from developing countries. The 'westernization' of nutritional intakes and changes of life style besides the high prevalence of chronic infections in developing countries are possible additive contributors to a high prevalence of inflammation, PEW and CVD among CKD patients. Also, genetic differences may affect inflammatory responses and nutritional status and, thus, the susceptibility to CVD in different regions.

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