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Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE Table of Contents   
Year : 2008  |  Volume : 19  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 411-419
Microalbuminuria in Patients With Essential Hypertension And its Relationship to Target Organ Damage: An Indian Experience


Kottayam Medical College, Kottayam, Kerala, India

Correspondence Address:
J M Pappachan
Senior lecturer in Medicine, Kottayam Medical College, Kottayam - 686008, Kerala
India
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PMID: 18445902

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Persistent microalbuminuria (MA) is the earliest indicator of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in patients with diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Patients with MA have high risk for target organ damage (TOD) resulting in stroke, retinopathy and adverse cardiovascular events. Though the prevalence of hypertension is high in India, the relationship between MA and TOD in hypertension is not well studied. To address this issue, this study was conducted at the Kottayam Medical College, Kerala, South India, between May 2005 and October 2006. The principal aim was to find out the prevalence of MA and its relationship to TOD in patients with essential hypertension. A total of 150 hypertensives without diabetes mellitus and/or other conditions causing MA were studied. Urine albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) was assessed and MA was defined as albumin excretion between 30-300 mg/day. The relationship of MA with the duration, severity and previous treatment of hypertension, body mass index (BMI), lipid profile and TOD's like left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), hypertensive retinopathy and stroke was assessed by univariate analysis. Forty patients (26.67%) were found to have MA of whom 24 were males and 16 were females. MA was significantly higher in those with longer duration and greater severity of hypertension (p <0.001 in each). Older age (p <0.001), adverse lipid profile (p <0.01) and higher BMI (p <0.04) were the other identifiable risk factors for MA. Gender and history of smoking did not pose higher risk for MA. Stroke (OR=3.8), echocardiography-proven LVH (OR=9.42) and hypertensive retinopathy (OR=9.7) were significantly higher in those with MA. In conclusion, the prevalence of MA in essential hypertension is high and patients with MA have high odds for developing TOD like stroke, LVH and hypertensive retinopathy. Early screening of hypertensives for MA and prompt treatment of positive cases might reduce the burden of CKD and cardiovascular disease in the community.


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