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Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
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Year : 2008  |  Volume : 19  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 895-902
Biofeedback systems and adaptive control hemodialysis treatment


Biomedical Engineering Department, Misr University for Science & Technology, 6th October City, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
Ahmad Taher Azar
Ahmad Orabi Square, Azar Building, Menouf, Menoufeya
Egypt
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PMID: 18974573

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On-line monitoring devices to control functions such as volume, body temperature, and ultrafiltration, were considered more toys than real tools for routine clinical application. However, bio-feedback blood volume controlled hemodialysis (HD) is now possible in routine dialysis, allowing the delivery of a more physiologically acceptable treatment. This system has proved to reduce the incidence of intra-HD hypotension episodes significantly. Ionic dialysance and the patient's plasma conductivity can be calculated easily from on-line measurements at two different steps of dialysate conductivity. A bio-feedback system has been devised to calculate the patient's plasma conductivity and modulate the conductivity of the dialysate continuously in order to achieve a desired end-dialysis patient plasma conductivity corresponding to a desired end­dialysis plasma sodium concentration. Another bio-feedback system can control the body tempe­rature by measuring it at the arterial and venous lines of the extra-corporeal circuit, and then modulating the dialysate temperature in order to stabilize the patients' temperature at constant values that result in improved intra-HD cardiovascular stability. The module can also be used to quantify vascular access recirculation. Finally, the simultaneous computer control of ultrafiltration has proven the most effective means for automatic blood pressure stabilization during hemo­dialysis treatment. The application of fuzzy logic in the blood-pressure-guided biofeedback con­trol of ultrafiltration during hemodialysis is able to minimize HD-induced hypotension. In con­clusion, online monitoring and adaptive control of the patient during the dialysis session using the bio-feedback systems is expected to render the process of renal replacement therapy more physiological and less eventful.


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