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Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
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Year : 2010  |  Volume : 21  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 372-378
Pulse cyclophospamide in severe lupus nephritis: Southern Indian experience

1 Department of Nephrology, Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences, Punjagutta, Hyderabad, India
2 Department of Pathology, Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences, Punjagutta, Hyderabad, India

Correspondence Address:
Uttara Das
Assistant Professor of Nephrology, Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences, Panjagutta, Hyderabad 500082, Andhra Pradesh
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PMID: 20228536

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To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the monthly pulse IV cyclophosphamide (IVC) therapy in patients with severe lupus nephritis, we studied 39 patients of lupus nephritis on IVC therapy between 1998 to 2002. Single monthly cyclophosphamide (0.75-1 g/m²) was infused intravenously with oral prednisolone (0.5 mg/kg per day) and appropriate hydration. Of the 39 pa­tients 25 (86.2%) patients were females and 4 (13.8%) were males. Six (2%) cases had irregular follow-up and 3 patients had expired during the initial cycles and were excluded from the study. The mean age was 25.6 + 6.72 years (range 10-40 years). The mean duration of the disease from the onset to renal biopsy was 24.2 + 18.5 months. The clinical presentations included nephrotic syndrome (34.5%), acute glomerulonephritis (31.0%), Pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) (10.3%), and rapidly progressive renal failure (6.7%). Renal insufficiency was present in 47.2% cases. Twenty-two (75.9%) patients had diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis (class IV), 6 (20.7%) focal proliferative glomerulonephritis (class III), and one (3.4%) class Vd. After a mean follow-up of 15.8 months, out of 29 patients, 13 (44.8%) had achieved complete remission, 7 (24.1%) partial remission and 9 (31.0%) cases did not respond to the therapy. Side effects of the therapy included vomiting and nausea (100%) and hair loss during the first few doses of IVC. In addition, one case had dysfunctional uterine bleeding and two patients had avascular necrosis of femoral head. We conclude that our data indicate that IVC in severe lupus nephritis is effective in Indian patients though longer follow-up is required.

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