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Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
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CASE REPORT Table of Contents   
Year : 2010  |  Volume : 21  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 1111-1114
Late acute antibody mediated rejection after nine years of renal transplantation

1 Hamed Alessa Organ Transplantation Center, Mubarak Al-Kabeer Hospital, Kuwait
2 Histopathology Department, Mubarak Al-Kabeer Hospital, Kuwait

Correspondence Address:
Medhat Abdel Halim
Hamed Al-Essa Organ Transplantation Centre, Ibn Sina Hospital, P.O. Box 25427, 13115 Safat
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PMID: 21060182

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Acute Antibody Mediated Rejection (AMR) is rarely reported as a long-term com­plication of renal transplantation, and it can present on top of another chronic pathology affecting the graft. A 45-year-old gentleman with chronic kidney disease due to unknown etiology received renal transplantation from his sister with 4 HLA mismatches. He received antithymocte globulin induction therapy and was maintained on steroids, azathioprine (AZA) and cyclosporine A (CsA). Up to eight years post-transplantation he was clinically and biochemically stable. He lost follow­up for about one year, and then presented with nephritic nephrotic syndrome and rise of serum creatinine (SCr.) to 210 μmol/L. Graft biopsy revealed picture suggestive of acute AMR on top of de novo membranoprolipherative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) with focal crescent formation, diffuse immune complex deposition and peri-tubular capillaries C4d positivity. Anti-HLA donor specific antibodies were highly positive for B and T cells class I and class II. The patient was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin, plasma exchange and anti-CD20 (rituximab). AZA was changed to mycophenolate mofetil and CsA to tacrolimus. He had partial response, but SCr. continued at 220 μmol/L.

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