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Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
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Year : 2010  |  Volume : 21  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 1172-1178
Prevalence and pattern of cystic kidney diseases in Ilorin, Nigeria

1 Department of Medicine, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria
2 Department of Radiology, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Adindu Chijioke
Department of Medicine, Baboko Post Office, P.O. Box 13945, Ilorin
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PMID: 21060202

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Cystic kidney disease is an important cause of chronic renal failure. Since the utili­zation of imaging techniques in the diagnosis of diseases has become widespread, cystic kidney disease is now being increasingly diagnosed. This study is designed to determine the prevalence and pattern of cystic kidney disease at the Nephrology Unit of University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UITH), Ilorin. All consecutive adult patients seen in the Nephrology Unit of UITH during a ten-year period (January 1999-December 2008) were studied for the presence of cystic kidney disease. The results were analyzed with specific reference to age, gender, annual inci­dence, type of cystic disease, location of cyst, mode of presentation, complications and prognosis. A total of 67 out of 436 renal patients (15.4%) studied had cystic kidney disease. A progressive annual increase in the number of cases was noticed. The age-range was 20-83 years with a mean of 47.4 +/- 16.2 years and the peak incidence was in the third and sixth decades with male to female ratio of 1.3:1. The types of cystic kidney disease identified in the study were: 26 simple cysts (38.8%), 35 polycystic kidney disease (53.3%) and six multicystic kidney disease (8.9%). The most common mode of presentation was abdominal pain followed by hypertension, urinary tract infection, chronic renal failure and palpable abdominal mass, in decreasing order. Our study indicates that cystic kidney disease is not an uncommon problem among our renal patients and the incidence is on the increase. Although, routine screening of family members with cystic kidney disease still remains a contentious issue because the knowledge may evoke anxiety in terms of employment and insurance, screening of symptomatic cases or those that develop hypertension, hematuria and proteinuria is strongly recommended.

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