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Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
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CASE REPORT Table of Contents   
Year : 2013  |  Volume : 24  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 1217-1222
Refeeding syndrome in a patient with advanced Kidney failure due to Nephronophthisis

Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Safat, Kuwait

Correspondence Address:
Kamel El-Reshaid
Professor, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, P. O. Box 24923, 13110 Safat
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DOI: 10.4103/1319-2442.121304

PMID: 24231489

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Refeeding syndrome (RS) is a serious and potentially fatal disorder. It is caused by a shift of fluids, sodium, potassium, magnesium and phosphorus as well changes in the metabolism of glucose, protein, fat and vitamins following the refeeding of malnourished patients, whether enterally or parenterally. RS has rarely been reported in patients with advanced kidney disease probably due to the pre-existing hyperphosphatemia, hypermagnesemia and hyperkalemia in these patients. In the following report, we present a patient with nephronophthisis type 1 deletion syndrome in whom her main previous nutrition was limited to simply rehydration to avoid renal replacement therapy. On presentation, she was cachectic and dehydrated with advanced kidney failure. She was treated with medical nephrectomy using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and then placed on maintenance hemodialysis. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy was used for her initial feeding. Care was exercised during her early refeeding with regard to correction of fluids and essential electrolytes, viz. potassium, phosphorus and magnesium, as well as multivitamins to avoid the cardiovascular and neurological complications of RS. However, the changes in the gut, pancreas and liver as well as her hyperlipidemia were a clear obstacle. Fortunately, the ileus and pancreatitis she developed on refeeding improved dramatically with a decrease of the feeding dose to half; however, the liver abnormalities and hyperlipidemia were severe and slow to recover. These improved after addition of ursodeoxycholic acid and permitted successful increase of the dose of feeding subsequently.

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