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Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
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Year : 2013  |  Volume : 24  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 1265-1270
Pattern of glomerular disease in the Saudi population: A single-center, five-year retrospective study

Department of Nephrology, Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
N Aslam
Department of Nephrology, Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh
Saudi Arabia
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DOI: 10.4103/1319-2442.121288

PMID: 24231502

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Glomerular diseases continue to be the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) globally. Hence, it is important to recognize the pattern of glomerular diseases in different geographical areas in order to understand the patho-biology, incidence and progression of the disorder. Published studies from different centers in Saudi Arabia have reported contradicting results. In this retrospective study, we report our experience at the Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 348 native renal biopsies performed at our center on patients with proteinuria >1 g, hematuria and/or renal impairment during a period of 5 years (between January 2005 and December 2009) were studied by a histopathologist using light microscopy, immunofluorescence and electron microscopy, and were categorized. Results showed that primary glomerular disease accounted for 55.1% of all renal biopsies. The most common histological lesion was focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) (27.6%), followed by minimal change disease (MCD) (17.7%) and membrano-proliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) (13.0%). Secondary glomerular disease accounted for 37.9% of the glomerular diseases, with lupus nephritis (LN) being the most common lesion (54.5%), followed by hypertensive nephrosclerosis (22%), post-infectious glomerulonephritis (7.5%), diabetic nephropathy (DN) (6.8%) and vasculitides (4.5%). Four percent of all biopsies turned out to be ESRD while biopsy was inadequate in 2.8% of the cases. In conclusion, our study showed that FSGS was the most common primary GN encountered, while LN was the most common secondary GN. We encountered 14 cases of crescentic glomerulonephritis. Also, the prevalence of MPGN, MCD, IgA nephropathy and membranous GN was many folds higher in males when compared with the Western data. We believe that it is mandatory to maintain a Saudi Arabian Renal Biopsy Registry to understand better the pattern of glomerular disease in the Saudi population and to follow any change in trend.

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