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Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
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Year : 2014  |  Volume : 25  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 900-905
Primary vesicoureteral reflux in Sudanese children

1 Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Soba University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum, Sudan
2 Department of Paediatrics, Omdurman Teaching Hospital, Ministry of Health, Sudan

Correspondence Address:
El-Tigani M. A. Ali
Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Soba University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum, Khartoum
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1319-2442.135212

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Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is a common congenital renal tract anomaly in children. Reports from Sudan are scanty. We report the characteristics, presentation and outcome of primary VUR in a tertiary care hospital. The records of 30 patients (16 males; 53%) followed-up between January 2004 and December 2010 were reviewed. The mean age at the time of diagnosis was 4 ± 3.9 years and 47% were <2 years of age. Renal ultrasound scan (USS) failed to predict VUR in 17% of the patients. On voiding cysturethrogram (VCUG), VUR was bilateral in 57% and severe grade in 64%. Grades were not significantly associated with age, gender or site of VUR. Initial dimercaptosuccinic acid radionuclide scan showed renal damage in 61.5% of the patients. Renal damage was significantly associated with female gender and severe VUR, but not with age of onset or history of urinary tract infection (UTI). Thirteen patients (43.3%) presented with acute UTI, eight (26.6%) with non-specific urinary tract symptoms and nine (30%) with persistently elevated serum creatinine. Urine cultures were positive in 73% of patients, and E. coli was the most common pathogen. Renal impairment at presentation was significantly associated with bilateral severe VUR and history of UTI but not age or gender. After a mean follow-up period of 1.78 years (6 months to 5 years), 70% of patients remained with normal renal function and 30% progressed to chronic kidney disease; two of them died. In conclusion, our data is different from many studies. Features of primary VUR in Sudanese children are late age of onset, equal gender affection and predominance of severe grade. Presentation is associated with a high rate of UTI, renal damage and advanced renal impairment. Measures to improve early detection and treatment of VUR may reduce the risk of kidney damage.

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