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Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
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RENAL DATA FROM THE ARAB WORLD  
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 27  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 758-761
Attitudes toward organ donation among personnel from the University Hospital of Rabat


Department of Nephrology-Dialysis-Renal Transplantation, Ibn Sina University Hospital, Rabat, Morocco

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Date of Web Publication5-Jul-2016
 

   Abstract 

The medical staff could play a major role in promoting for organ donation. The aim of our study was to assess the attitudes of the medical staff toward organ donation. It is a prospective study conducted over a period of six months. A questionnaire was distributed and explained to the medical staff in our institute. Fifteen questions were designed to include four main themes: sociodemographic information, attitude toward organ donation, perceived knowledge about organ donation, and reasons for refusal or acceptance of organ donation. Among the 245 respondents, 36.3% had prior knowledge about organ transplantation, 31.8% knew about the law of organ donation, 43.2% had already donated blood sometimes, 65.7% expressed their consent to organ donation during their lifetime, and 82.8% expressed their agreement to donation after their death. The grounds for refusal were generally: a misunderstanding of risks, desire for respect of corpse. The religious and the ethical motive were present too as a ground for decision making. The medical staff is the key for organ donation. To promote organ transplantation, personnel should be well informed about ethical, moral, and religious dimensions of organ donation and transplantation.

How to cite this article:
Flayou K, Kouam N, Miara H, Raoundi O, Ouzeddoun N, Benamar L, Bayahia R, Rhou H. Attitudes toward organ donation among personnel from the University Hospital of Rabat. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2016;27:758-61

How to cite this URL:
Flayou K, Kouam N, Miara H, Raoundi O, Ouzeddoun N, Benamar L, Bayahia R, Rhou H. Attitudes toward organ donation among personnel from the University Hospital of Rabat. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl [serial online] 2016 [cited 2021 Oct 18];27:758-61. Available from: https://www.sjkdt.org/text.asp?2016/27/4/758/185239

   Introduction Top


Organs for transplantation are procured from both living and deceased donors. In Morocco, however, almost all organ donations come from living donors. Deceased organ donation has great potential because of the rate of accidents. Nevertheless, this source is still not used properly because of the continued debate in the medical community about the concept of brain death and inadequate awareness of the public about the importance of organ donation and transplantation in many regions in this country.

For many years, organ transplantation faced obstacles imposed, especially by the inadequate number of organ donors. [1] This obstacle affects all nations of the Western Europe and North America. [2],[3] The motivations of the acceptance or rejection of the gift were addressed by various opinion surveys as well as by sociological studies. [2],[4]

Doctors and nurses are in regular contact with patients and could play a major role in promoting organ donation, and they may influence the decision making by the rest of the population; any unfavorable attitude of this group would be an obstacle to an increase in organ transplantation.

Motivation to donate has been associated with the appropriate awareness of organ donation; most of the research on this subject came from developed countries. [5],[6]

We aimed in this study to determine the attitude of the medical staff in our hospital toward organ donation and to analyze the reasons for their positions in this issue.


   Materials and Methods Top


In our study, we collected data prospectively from participants through a self-administered questionnaire over a period of six months. The questionnaire was intended to analyze the knowledge, individual perception, willingness to donate an organ, and reasons of refusal.

We included in this study the medical staff of the Ibn Sina University Hospital, Rabat, Morocco, comprising residents in different departments, nurses, and medical students. We excluded from the study all the medical staff (residents and nurses) of Nephrology and Renal Transplantation Department.

Demographic information of the participants such as age, gender, marital, and employment status in addition to prior knowledge of the donation and transplantation law, prior confrontation with a situation of organ donation, prior blood or organ donation, and finally the arguments of the acceptance or refusal of the gift.


   Statistical Analysis Top


Data were entered and analyzed on Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21 (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA). All qualitative variables were described through fre quencies and percentages, and all quantitative variables were noted as a mean and standard deviation. Chi-square test was applied, and P <0.05 was considered significant.


   Results Top


A total of 245 responders were included in our survey; their mean age was 31.9 ± 8.5 years with a sex ratio of 0.9 [Table 1]. Among these responders, 36.3% achieved an adequate knowledge score for organ donation, while the majority (63.7%) felt that there was a need to increase awareness regarding organ donation, so more people could be encouraged to donate [Table 2].
Table 1: Sociodemographic characteristics of respondents.

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Table 2: Knowledge about organ donation.

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The attitude of the medical staff on organ donation was different. The majority of participants agreed on organ donation, while 34.3% refused. They have also declared their interest to benefit from training on this subject to improve their knowledge [Table 3]. Reasons for donation refusal are multiple. [Table 4] provides a summary of the different grounds for refusal and acceptance of the gift.
Table 3: Variables related to attitudes toward organ donation.

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Table 4: Arguments for reasons for attitudes toward being prospective organ donors.

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   Discussion Top


Organ donation is a unique process that can improve only through the cooperation of several parties including donors, families, medical staff, government, and society.

Several studies aimed to compare knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding organ donation. Our results support the conclusions of previous work that student nurses' knowledge of organ donation can be substantially improved and that their discussion could be positively influenced by the degree of education about the topic.

There were 63.7% of the staff who had never any training or prior information on organ transplantation. These results are consistent with previous studies in Portugal as an example, despite the fact that it ranks the second country among the European countries in organ donation. [7]

In contrast to our study, a recent study in Germany has shown that 42% of the students rated their attitude toward organ donation to be influenced positively by the lecture on organ donation. [8]

Education about organ donation is not routinely incorporated in nursing degree curricula. [9] A course of study needs to be objective and sufficiently informative to encourage organ transplantation since inadequate information and specific training among health personnel would have a negative impact on organ donation rates. [10]

Understanding refusal reasons could help devising strategies to increase the rate of organ donation. For the reasons of refusal to be prospective donors in our study, the majority of participants had an unclear vision of the grounds for refusal. We have also found that fear and ignorance of subsequent complications were among the main causes.

The religious argument as a reason for refusal is not specific in our study among Moroccan society. The same observation was made by other studies in other countries, including Turkey, where Bilgin and Akgun reported a rate of about 20% of doctors and 80% of nurses who refused to donate organs after death. [11],[12]

We conclude that appropriate knowledge and positive attitude of the health science students could play a key role in shaping the public opinion about organ donation and transplantation. To improve organ transplantation in Morocco, it is essential to initiate specific training about ethical, moral, and religious issues related to organ donation and transplantation.

Conflict of interest: None declared.

 
   References Top

1.
Saleem T, Ishaque S, Habib N, Hussain SS, Jawed A, Khan AA, et al. Knowledge, attitudes and practices survey on organ donation among a selected adult population of Pakistan. BMC Med Ethics 2009;10:5.  Back to cited text no. 1
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2.
Wakeford RE, Stepney R. Obstacles to organ donation. Br J Surg 1989;76:435-9.  Back to cited text no. 2
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3.
Gore SM, Taylor RM, Wallwork J. Availability of transplantable organs from brain stem dead donors in intensive care units. BMJ 1991;302:149-53.  Back to cited text no. 3
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4.
Traeger J, Colpart JJ. Causes and SocioPsychological Dimensions in Donation Refusai. Organ Shortage: The Solutions. Proceedings of the 26 th Conference on Transplantation and Clinical Immunology. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers;1994. p. 41-7.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Pham H, Spigner C. Knowledge and opinions about organ donation and transplantation among Vietnamese Americans in Seattle, Washington: A pilot study. Clin Transplant 2004;18:707-15.  Back to cited text no. 5
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6.
Mossialos E, Costa-Font J, Rudisill C. Does organ donation legislation affect individuals' willingness to donate their own or their relative's organs? Evidence from European Union survey data. BMC Health Serv Res 2008;8:48.  Back to cited text no. 6
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7.
Melo J, Batista A, Teixeira A, Figueiredo E, Ribeiro O, Lopes P, et al. Knowledge and behavior among health professionals in relation to cadaveric organ donation and transplantation: A questionnaire-based analysis in Portuguese hospitals. Transplant Proc 2011;43:1429-33.  Back to cited text no. 7
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8.
Radunz S, Juntermanns B, Heuer M, Frühauf NR, Paul A, Kaiser GM. The effect of education on the attitude of medical students towards organ donation. Ann Transplant 2012;17:140-4.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Anker AE, Feeley TH, Friedman E, Kruegler J. Teaching organ and tissue donation in medical and nursing education: A needs assessment. Prog Transplant 2009;19:343-8.  Back to cited text no. 9
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10.
Rodríguez-Villar C, Paredes D, Ruiz A, Alberola M, Montilla C, Vilardell J, et al. Attitude of health professionals toward cadaveric tissue donation. Transplant Proc 2009;41:2064-6.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Akgün HS, Bilgin N, Tokalak I, Kut A, Haberal M. Organ donation: A cross-sectional survey of the knowledge and personal views of Turkish health care professionals. Transplant Proc 2003;35:1273-5.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Topbas M, Can G, Can MA, Ozgün S. Outmoded attitudes toward organ donation among Turkish health care professionals. Transplant Proc 2005;37:1998-2000.  Back to cited text no. 12
    

Top
Correspondence Address:
Kaoutar Flayou
Department of Nephrology-Dialysis-Renal Transplantation, Ibn Sina University Hospital, Rabat
Morocco
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DOI: 10.4103/1319-2442.185239

PMID: 27424694

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  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]



 

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    Materials and Me...
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