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Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 30  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 1423-1430
Pregnancy-related acute kidney injury: Etiologies and short-term outcomes in a tertiary hospital in Southwest Nigeria

Department of Internal Medicine, Kidney Care Centre, University of Medical Sciences, Ondo, Ondo State, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
O A Adejumo
Kidney Care Centre, University of Medical Sciences, Ondo, Ondo State
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DOI: 10.4103/1319-2442.275487

PMID: 31929290

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Although the incidence of pregnancy-related acute kidney injury (PRAKI) is declining in developing countries, it still remains a major cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the etiologies, short-term outcomes, and their predictors in patients with PRAKI managed in a tertiary health facility in Southwest Nigeria over a four-year period. This was a four-year retrospective review of clinical records of patients managed for PRAKI in University of Medical Sciences Teaching Hospital, Ondo State, Nigeria. Thirty-two women with a mean age of 31.09 ± 7.50 years had PRAKI during the period reviewed. Twenty-four (75%) patients were multiparous and PRAKI was most common in the postpartum period (56.3%). Twenty-three patients (71.9%) were in RIFLE Stage 3, 24 (75%) received blood transfusion, 5 (15.6%) required intensive care unit (ICU) care, 24 (75%) needed dialysis while 19 (59.4%) had hemodialysis. The common causes of PRAKI were obstetric hemorrhage in 16 (50%), sepsis in seven (21.9%), and eclampsia in six (18.8%). Maternal and fetal mortality were 34.4% and 50% respectively. Seventeen (53.1%) had full renal recovery and only one (3.1%) became dialysis dependent. Significant factors that were associated with maternal mortality were admission to ICU (P = 0.01), hypotension (P = 0.02), and impaired consciousness (P <0.001) PRAKI is still relatively common and significantly contributes to maternal and perinatal mortality in Nigeria. Obstetric hemorrhage which is the most common cause of PRAKI is preventable and treatable. There is a need for physicians to effectively prevent and manage obstetric hemorrhage.

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