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Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
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REVIEW ARTICLE Table of Contents   
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 31  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 703-716
Risk Factors for the Development of Postoperative Acute Kidney Injury in Patients Undergoing Joint Replacement Surgery: A Meta-Analysis

1 Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
2 Department of Orthopedics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India

Correspondence Address:
Neha Singh
Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhubaneswar - 751 019, Odisha
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DOI: 10.4103/1319-2442.292304

PMID: 32801231

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A new-onset acute kidney injury (AKI) after arthroplasty impairs rehabilitation and outcome. A prior knowledge of risk factors contributes to a planned preventive management and prognostication. Although many studies have addressed the issue, our objective was to perform a meta-analysis to bring a consensus on the perioperative risk factors promoting AKI postoperatively. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies reporting risk factors with odds of development of AKI according to the existing criteria after hip or knee replacement surgery. We searched the PubMed and Google Scholar databases for free English articles published until June 2018. Two authors independently screened the articles and extracted data. Discrepancies were resolved by consensus or consulting the third author. Methodological quality of the articles was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. A total of five studies were included in this meta-analysis. The following risk factors were found to contribute to new kidney injury: advanced age; male gender; preoperative liver, cardiac, or kidney diseases; presence of heart failure; American Society of Anesthesiologists grade ≥ 3; requirement of perioperative blood transfusion, revision arthroplasty, and knee arthroplasty; body mass index; and use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Diabetes, hypertension, duration of surgery, type of anesthesia, and preoperative serum creatinine were not found to be associated with renal injury. The key limitation was the availability of small number of studies. More longitudinal observational studies addressing the issue are the need of the hour, and, till then, a preventive strategy aimed at the identified risk factors should help.

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