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Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE Table of Contents   
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 31  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 767-774
The Prevalence of Frailty and its Association with Cognitive Dysfunction among Elderly Patients on Maintenance Hemodialysis: A Cross-Sectional Study from South India


1 Department of Nephrology, Iqraa International Hospital and Research Center, Kozhikode, Kerala, India
2 Department of Nephrology, Aster MIMS Hospital, Kozhikode, Kerala, India
3 Department of Psychiatry, Iqraa International Hospital and Research Center, Kozhikode, Kerala, India

Correspondence Address:
Benil Hafeeq
Department of Nephrology, Iqraa International Hospital and Research Center, Kozhikode
India
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DOI: 10.4103/1319-2442.292310

PMID: 32801237

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Data are scarce regarding the prevalence of frailty in elderly patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (HD) in India. We conducted a cross-sectional observational study aimed to study the prevalence of frailty and cognitive dysfunction in patients aged 75 years or more undergoing maintenance HD in three tertiary care hospitals and associated stand-alone dialysis centers in North Kerala. Frailty was ascertained by two methods. In method 1 (physical performance measurement based), dichotomous scoring (0 or 1) of five domains, namely weight loss, exhaustion, low physical activity, weak grip, and slow walking, was done, and a score of 3/5 was used to define frailty. In method 2 (self-report measure based), scores on the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36-item Questionnaire (SF-36) physical function domain were used instead of hand grip strength and walking speed, and a score of <75 was defined as meeting the criteria for weakness and slow walking. Cognitive function was documented using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Instrument. A total of 899 patients were screened, of whom 44 were aged 75 years or more and 39 met the criteria for inclusion. The majority (n = 31, 79.5%) had ages between 75 and 80 years and were male. Dialysis vintage was <1 year in 15.4%, 1–3 years in 51.3%, and >3 years in 33.3% of patients. Frailty was documented in 22 (56.4%) patients by method 1 and in 25 (64.1%) by method 2. There was a statistically significant difference between the two methods in documenting frailty (P < 0.001, Chi-square test). Cognitive impairment was present in 89.7% of patients and significantly associated with frailty (P < 0.001, Fisher’s exact test). Frailty and cognitive dysfunction are highly prevalent in elderly people undergoing maintenance HD in North Kerala. Physical performance and self-report measure-based methods correlate well in frailty documentation.


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