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Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE Table of Contents   
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 32  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 69-83
Factors Contributing to Peritonitis in Peritoneal Dialysis: Comparing Triple Cuff Saudi Catheter to Double Cuff Tenckhoff Catheter: A 12-Year Observational Study


1 Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology, King Fahd Hospital of the University, Alkhobar, Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Computer Science, AFDA, Cape town, South Africa
3 Department of Internal Medicine, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Abdullah K Al-Hwiesh
Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology, King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, 40246
Saudi Arabia
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DOI: 10.4103/1319-2442.318550

PMID: 34145116

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Very few detailed descriptive studies focusing on peritonitis in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) have been published. Most of the current information is available through from either study with the limited number of patients or isolated case reports. We conducted an observational study of our PD-peritonitis database over the past 12 years to study the clinical profile and the outcomes of peritonitis episodes in our PD center. A total of 1123 patients (male: 59.5%) with 319 episodes of peritonitis were identified. Of the patients, 130 (11.6%) were considered immunocompromised (steroid use, failed renal transplant, systemic lupus erythematosus, malignancy) and 468 (41.7%) had diabetes mellitus. The total number of bacterial peritonitis episodes was 319; of these 226 (70.8%) were seen with double cuff Tenckhoff PD catheter and 93 (29.2%) occurred with triple-cuff Saudi PD catheter (P = 0.0001). Of all peritonitis episodes 170 (53.3%) episodes were caused by a single Gram-positive organism, 124 (38.9%) episodes by a single Gram-negative organism, and 25 (7.8%) were polymicrobial. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were responsible for most cases of Gram-positive peritonitis (n = 110, 64.7%), while Escherichia coli was the causative organism in 67 (54.0%) of the single Gram-negative episodes. Peritonitis episodes due to Gram-positive organisms had a better outcome than those caused by Gram-negative bacteria. Fifteen (4.7%) of the 319 episodes resulted in death in 13 patients. In 79 (24.8%) episodes, the patients had to be transferred to hemodialysis because of unresolved peritonitis. Resolution rate was 75.2% (240 episodes) which was influenced by PD catheter type, PD duration and the number of days peritoneal fluid effluent remained above 100 cells/μL. Other modifiable and non-modifiable factors had no effect on the resolution rate. Peritonitis episodes due to Gram-positive organisms had a better outcome than those with Gram-negative or polymicrobial etiology. Peritonitis resolution rates were worse with Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. Diabetes, current steroid use, and exit-site/tunnel infections seemed to have limited influence on the peritonitis outcome. Type of PD catheter (double Tenckhoff vs triple-cuff Saudi catheter), duration of PD and the number of days peritoneal fluid effluent remained >100 cells/μL were the only factors with significant effects on the outcome.


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