Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation

: 2009  |  Volume : 20  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 731--736

Systemic lupus erythematosus conundrums

E Nigel Wardle 
 London NW1 8JS, United Kingdom

Correspondence Address:
E Nigel Wardle
London NW1 8JS
United Kingdom

Although the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) might now seem very complicated, various aspects are coming together to make a coherent story. Firstly, there is a loss of tolerance by the T and B lymphocytes, so accounting for the formation of autoantibodies that characterize this autoimmune disease. Failure of methylation of vital genes could underlie this aspect. Secondly, as much emphasized in recent years, poor clearance of apoptotic cells on account of de­fective phagocyte receptors and complement deficiencies involves stimulation of Toll like Receptors (TLRs) 7 and 9 on plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) and results in release of type I interferon alpha (IFNa). Thirdly, the familiar Th-1 lymphocytes produce interleukins 12 and 18 and inter­feron gamma (IFNy)), along with chemokines, but now Th-17 lymphocytes are recognized to play an important role.

How to cite this article:
Wardle E N. Systemic lupus erythematosus conundrums.Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2009;20:731-736

How to cite this URL:
Wardle E N. Systemic lupus erythematosus conundrums. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl [serial online] 2009 [cited 2020 Nov 28 ];20:731-736
Available from:;year=2009;volume=20;issue=5;spage=731;epage=736;aulast=Wardle;type=0