LETTER TO THE EDITOR
Year : 2010 | Volume
: 21 | Issue : 6 | Page : 1135--1136
A comparison between urinary bladder temperature and rectal, axillary and oral temperatures following kidney transplantation
Hassan Ahmadnia, Mohammad J Mojahedi, Mohammad Khaje Dalooee, Saeed R Ghanbarizadeh
Department of Urology and Nephrology, Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Science, Mashhad, Iran
Department of Urology and Nephrology, Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Science, Mashhad
|How to cite this article:|
Ahmadnia H, Mojahedi MJ, Dalooee MK, Ghanbarizadeh SR. A comparison between urinary bladder temperature and rectal, axillary and oral temperatures following kidney transplantation.Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2010;21:1135-1136
|How to cite this URL:|
Ahmadnia H, Mojahedi MJ, Dalooee MK, Ghanbarizadeh SR. A comparison between urinary bladder temperature and rectal, axillary and oral temperatures following kidney transplantation. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl [serial online] 2010 [cited 2021 Oct 23 ];21:1135-1136
Available from: https://www.sjkdt.org/text.asp?2010/21/6/1135/72307
To the Editor,
Measurement of temperature or core temperature as a part of vital signs is particularly important in the critical care patient. Frequent changes in temperature have led to the use of rectal probes for continuous monitoring of hypothermic or hyperthermic patients. 
Patients with indwelling Foley catheter with a specialized thermo probe can have continuous monitoring of body temperature. 
In this study, we compared the temperatures of urinary bladder, rectum, axilla and mouth in patients who underwent kidney transplantation.
Twenty patients (14 males and mean age 34 years) admitted for kidney transplantation surgery were evaluated. The patients who were catheterized with Foley urinary catheter with thermistor probe (Sensor 2 way silicone catheter, Rusch, Germany) during and after surgical procedure had their intra-vesical temperatures recorded.
Oral, axillary and intra-vesical temperatures were recorded at two hours interval and rectal temperature was recorded every 12 hours, for four days postoperatively.
Oral, axillary and rectal temperatures were measured using conventional thermometer.
Then, the recorded data were analyzed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) computer package. In this study, the temperature measurement by intravesical thermo probe was no better than rectal, oral or axillary temperatures.
The mean temperatures recorded from mouth, axilla, rectum and bladder over a period of 4 days were 36.91 ± 0.3ºC, 36.6 ± 0.32ºC, 37.25 ± 0.35ºC, 37.8 ± 0.3ºC, respectively.
The repeated measurement test showed significant differences between mean temperature in four methods (χ2 = 24.58, P < 0.001).
The correlation between oral and intravesical temperature (r = 0.914, P < 0.001), axillary and intravesical temperature (r = 0.936, P < 0.001), rectal and intravesical temperature (r = 0.927, P < 0.001) was linear and direct.
Body temperature being an important part of monitoring of critically ill patients has been studied by several authors. Fulbrook suggested that axillary temperature compared favorably with pulmonary artery (PA) temperature and is the site of choice in the absence of invasive catheters.  The rectal site is widely assumed most closely to reflect core temperature. Inaccurate measurement, however, may result due to the rectal wall insulation, especially during rapid re-warming of hypothermic patients and in patients with constipation. ,
Bladder temperature measured using thermistor or thermocouple within an indwelling catheter was found to be more accurate than or at least similar to rectal temperature. , We did not find bladder temperature to be significantly better than that found by other methods. In patients where continuous temperature monitoring is needed, in the absence of pulmonary artery catheters, bladder temperature monitoring could provide a continuous display of core temperature.
Although bladder temperature is not considered as a true measure of core temperature, it is detected later than the changes in esophageal and nasopharyngeal temperatures (closer to core temperature) but earlier than rectal and skin temperature respond. 
In conclusion, due to its ease, catheterization of bladder with a temperature monitoring probe in critically ill patients requiring continuous display of core temperature provides an alternative method. It, however, seems to be of similar efficacy to axillary and rectal temperature monitoring.
Special thanks to Vice President of research in MUMS for the great support.
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