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Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
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   2013| July-August  | Volume 24 | Issue 4  
    Online since June 24, 2013

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Outcome of second kidney transplant: A single center experience
MR Gumber, SH Jain, VB Kute, PR Shah, HV Patel, AV Vanikar, PR Modi, HR Trivedi
July-August 2013, 24(4):696-701
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.113857  PMID:23816716
Nowadays, a repeat transplantation is considered to confer a better survival advantage to patients over dialysis. The cost-effectiveness of transplantation for end-stage renal disease patients shows benefits over dialysis even for re-transplanted patients. This retrospective single center ten-year study was undertaken to evaluate patient/graft survival, function vis-à-vis serum creatinine (SCr) and rejection episodes in 62 re-transplanted patients. Sixty-two patients underwent a second renal transplant (24 living related, 38 deceased donors) at our center between 2000 to 2009. The mean recipient age was 41.9 ± 12.27 years. Fifty-three recipients were male and nine recipients were female. Recipients had negative acceptable lymphocyte cross-matching using anti-human globulin complement-dependent cytotoxicity tests and flow cytometric cross-match before transplant. All recipients except those who were hepatitis C virus or hepatitis B surface antigen positive received single-dose rabbit-anti-thymocyte globulin induction and steroids, calcineurin inhibitor ± mycophenolate mofetil/azathioprine for maintenance immunosuppression. Of the 62 patients, 38 patients received kidneys from deceased donors and 24 patients received kidneys from live donors. Over the mean follow-up of 4.03 ± 2.93 years, the 1-year, 5-year and 10-year patient survival rates were 85.33%, 66.7% and 66.7%, respectively, and the graft survival rates were 96.7%, 79.7% and 79.7%, respectively. The acute rejection rates were 17.6%, with a mean SCr of 1.92 ± 0.5 mg/dL. There was unexplained interstitial fibrosis with tubular atrophy in 11.2% patients (n = 7), all leading to graft loss eventually. Overall, 25% (n = 16) of the patients were lost, mainly to infectious complications. Re-transplantation has acceptable graft and patient survival over a ten-year follow-up period and should be encouraged for better quality of life as compared with dialysis.
  6,097 561 -
CASE REPORTS
Crossed fused renal ectopia with a single ureter: A rare anomaly
Navneet Kaur, Sudipta Saha, Rahul Mriglani, Pradeep Saini, Arun Gupta
July-August 2013, 24(4):773-776
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.113881  PMID:23816729
A rare case of crossed fused renal ectopia is presented where the fused kidneys were present on the right side and there was a single ureter opening into the right side of the bladder. To the best of our knowledge, this variant of crossed fused ectopia has not been reported previously. This case challenges the embryological theory that deviation of one of the ureteric buds to the opposite side results in crossed fused renal ectopia.
  5,312 488 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Alveolar hemorrhage and kidney disease: Characteristics and therapy
Lilia Ben Fatma, Zohra El Ati, Rais Lamia, Dorra Ben Aich, Krid Madiha, Smaoui Wided, Hedi Ben Maiz, Somaya Beji, Zouaghi Karim, Fatma Ben Moussa
July-August 2013, 24(4):743-750
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.113868  PMID:23816724
Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis and Goodpasture's glomerular basement membrane disease are the most common causes of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, a life-threatening disease. Systemic lupus erythematosus and the antiphospholipid syndrome are also causes of alveolar hemorrhage. We retrospectively reviewed 15 cases of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) associated with renal diseases. Diagnosis of DAH was based on the presence of bloody bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. There were three men and 12 women, with a mean age of 50.5 years (extremes: 24-74 years). Proteinuria and hematuria were observed, respectively, in 15 and 14 cases. Six patients revealed arterial hypertension. Crescentic glomerulonephritis was diagnosed with kidney biopsies in ten cases. The etiology of renal disease was microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) in seven cases, Wegener disease in four cases, systemic lupus erythematous in one case, cryoglobulinemia in one case, myeloma in one case and propyl-thiouracil-induced MPA in one case. Hemoptysis occurred in 14 cases. The mean serum level of hemoglobin was 7.1 g/dL (5.1-10 g/dL). The mean serum creatinine concentration was 7.07 mg/dL (2.4-13.7 mg/dL). Gas exchange was severely compromised, with an oxygenation index <80 mmHg in 14 patients and <60 mmHg in seven patients. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed in 11 cases, and had positive findings for hemorrhage in all. Methylprednisolone pulses and cyclophosphamide were used in 14 patients. Plasmapheresis was performed in three cases. One patient received cycles of Dexamethasome-Melphalan. Three patients died as a result of DAH. The mortality rate in our study was 20%.
  4,300 1,007 -
Ultrasound-guided internal jugular vein access: Comparison between short axis and long axis techniques
Tarek F Tammam, Eid M El-Shafey, Hossam F Tammam
July-August 2013, 24(4):707-713
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.113861  PMID:23816718
The use of real-time ultrasound (US) is advantageous in the insertion of central venous catheters (CVCs) in adults, especially in whom difficulties are anticipated for various reasons. The aim of the present study was to compare two different real-time 2-dimensional US-guided techniques [short axis view/out-of-plane approach (SAX OOP approach) versus long axis view/in-plane approach (LAX IP approach)] for internal jugular vein (IJV) cannulation. In this prospective study, 90 critical care and hemodialysis patients were assigned for insertion of CVCs using either the real-time US-guided (SAX OOP approach or LAX IP approach) or landmark technique (control group). Failed catheter placement, risk of complications from placement, failure on first attempt at placement, number of attempts until successful catheterization, time to successful catheterization, incidence of central line-associated blood stream infection (CLA-BSI) and demographics of each patient were recorded. There were no significant differences in patient's demographic characteristics, side of cannulation (right or left) or presence of risk factors for difficult venous cannulation between the three groups of patients. Cannulation of the IJV was achieved in all patients by using US (SAX OOP and LAX IP approaches) and in 27 of the patients (90%) by using the landmark technique (P = 0.045). Average access time (skin to vein) and number of attempts were comparable between the SAX OOP and the LAX IP approaches while significantly reduced in both US groups of patients compared with the landmark group (P <0.001). In the landmark group, puncture of the carotid artery occurred in 16.7% of the patients, hematoma in 23.3% of the patients, pneumothorax in 3.3% of the patients and CLA-BSI in 20% of the patients, which were all significantly increased compared with the US group (P <0.05). The findings of this study suggest that the SAX OOP and LAX IP approaches were comparable for cannulation of IJV in critical care and hemodialysis patients. Furthermore, both US-guided techniques were superior to the landmark technique for insertion of CVCs.
  3,917 1,057 -
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Primary renal lymphoma: Is prognosis really that bad?
Mrinal Pahwa, Neeraj Gupta, Vipin Tyagi, Sudhir Chadha
July-August 2013, 24(4):816-817
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.113905  PMID:23816741
  4,531 363 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Association between pruritus and serum concentrations of parathormone, calcium and phosphorus in hemodialysis patients
Ramin Tajbakhsh, Hamid Reza Joshaghani, Faranak Bayzayi, Mahboobeh Haddad, Mostafa Qorbani
July-August 2013, 24(4):702-706
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.113858  PMID:23816717
Chronic renal disorders have a progressive course in most cases, and finally result in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Hemodialysis (HD) is one of the mainstays in the treatment of these patients. Disturbance in calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) metabolism and alteration of serum levels of parathormone (PTH) are observed in these patients. One of the most common cutaneous manifestations in patients on HD is pruritus. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between pruritus and serum concentrations of Ca, P and PTH in patients with chronic renal disease. This analytic, descriptive, cross-sectional study was performed on 120 patients on HD at the Fifth-Azar Hospital in Gorgan, Iran, in 2010. Information related to the patients, including age, gender, pruritus, time of pruritus and duration on dialysis, was extracted from questionnaires. Serum concentrations of intact PTH, Ca and P were measured. Data were analyzed by the chi-square test and SPSS-16 software. A P-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Among the 120 study patients, 50% were male and the mean age (±SD) was 49 ± 12.3 years. Sixty percent of the patients had pruritus, of whom 33.3% had PTH levels above the normal range. Among the 40% of the patients who did not have pruritus, 39.6% had PTH levels higher than the normal levels. The mean serum Ca and P levels were 8.44 ± 1.65 mg/dL and 5.48 ± 1.81 mg/dL, respectively. The mean (±SD) Ca-P product was 55.46 ± 47.16 and the mean PTH concentration was 274.34 ± 286.53 pg/mL. No significant association was found between pruritus and age, sex, serum PTH and P levels as well as Ca-P product. However, the association between serum Ca levels and pruritus was significant (P = 0.03). Our study showed that most patients with pruritus had serum Ca levels in the abnormal range (lower or higher), and there was no significant correlation between serum iPTH level and pruritis. Thus, good control of serum Ca levels is important to reduce pruritus in these patients.
  3,902 631 -
CASE REPORTS
Double-positive Goodpasture's syndrome with concomitant active pulmonary tuberculosis
Waqar Kashif, Sonia Yaqub, Syed Faisal Mahmood, Junaid Patel
July-August 2013, 24(4):783-788
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.113886  PMID:23816731
Anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) disease usually presents as rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis, and, when accompanied with pulmonary hemorrhage, it is called Goodpasture's syndrome. Anti-neutrophilic cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) may co-exist with anti-GBM antibodies. In most of these "double positive" cases, ANCA is specific for myeloperoxidase (p-ANCA). We report a rare case of a critically ill patient c-ANCA-associated double-positive Goodpasture's syndrome with concomitant tuberculosis that was successfully treated with immunosuppression, plasmapheresis and anti-tuberculous therapy (ATT). A 32-year-old gentleman with a 15 pack-year smoking history presented with massive hemoptysis, respiratory failure and oliguria. Laboratory investigation revealed anemia, elevated creatinine and active urinary sediment. Chest X-ray revealed bilateral pulmonary infiltrates. Broad-spectrum antibiotics and intravenous corticosteroids were started. Bronchoscopy showed alveolar hemorrhage and smears from bronchial lavage from both lungs were positive for acid fast bacillus (AFB). Vasculitis work-up revealed high titers of c-ANCA and anti-GBM antibodies. Kidney biopsy revealed crescents in >50% glomeruli on light microscopy. Immunofluorescence showed linear deposition of IgG and C3. The patient received pulse methylprednisone for three days followed by oral prednisone and ATT. In addition, he also underwent nine sessions of plasmapheresis. Oral Cyclophosphamide was added on Day 10. The patient showed remarkable recovery as his lung fields cleared and his kidney function got stabilized. Cyclophosphamide was continued for three months and then switched to azathioprine. At six months, the creatinine is 1.2 mg/dL, with minimal proteinuria and a normal chest X-ray. To the best of our knowledge, this is the only reported case of double-positive Goodpasture's syndrome (c-ANCA and anti GBM) with active tuberculosis treated successfully.
  3,449 501 1
RENAL DATA FROM ASIA-AFRICA
Metabolic evaluation in first-time renal stone formers in north India: A single center study
Akhil Joshi, Sushil Kumar Gupta, Aneesh Srivastava
July-August 2013, 24(4):838-843
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.113916  PMID:23816746
The risk of stone recurrence in first-time stone formers (FTSF) varies from 26% to 53%. There is no consensus regarding metabolic evaluation in these individuals. We evaluated the metabolic abnormalities in first-time renal stone forming patients in North India. Thirty-nine patients, (29 males and 10 females with mean age 39.3 ± 12.9 years) who presented with nephrolithiasis for the first time were evaluated. We evaluated the calcium homeostasis [serum corrected total calcium, phosphorous, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, albumin, parathormone (iPTH), 25-hydroxy cholecalciferol (25(OH)D 3 ), 1-25 di-hydroxy cholecalciferol (1,25(OH) 2 D 3 )] and performed the calcium load test also. Two 24-h urine collections were taken for citrate, oxalate, calcium and uric acid. Ammonium chloride loading test for diagnosis of distal renal tubular acidosis was performed in all patients. For each of the diagnostic categories, descriptive statistics were computed for all biochemical variables. A two-tailed P-value <0.05 was regarded as significant. Metabolic abnormalities were detected in 92.3% of the patients (n = 39) studied. Of them, almost 60% had two or more metabolic abnormalities. The most common metabolic abnormality was hypo-citraturia (82%), followed by hyper-oxaluria (56%) and hyper-calciuria (41%). Five percent of the patients had incomplete renal tubular acidosis, signifying the importance of the ammonium chloride loading test in patients with renal stones. None of the study patients were detected to have primary hyperparathyroidism. In three patients, the etiology could not be detected. Our findings suggest that an underlying disorder is present in majority of first-time renal stone formers. Intervention with appropriate treatment can prevent recurrences. Hence, comprehensive metabolic evaluation is recommended in all FTSF.
  3,258 563 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
The effect of Helicobacter pylori on vitamin B 12 blood levels in chronic renal failure patients: A single blind control trial
Hossein Khedmat, Mohsen Amini, Ashraf Karbasi, Reza Azizi
July-August 2013, 24(4):759-763
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.113873  PMID:23816726
Helicobacter pylori (HP) is a common infection worldwide and has been associated with severe morbidity. The level of vitamin B 12 in HP-infected chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients is reported to be lower than in the general population. The present study has been designed to evaluate the vitamin B 12 level in HP-infected CKD patients. We assessed the serum levels of vitamin B 12 in 50 CKD patients with positive HP serology, one and three months after the eradication of HP infection. There were significant differences between the serum levels of vitamin B 12 in the study patients before (806.98 ± 466.82) and after (760.36 ± 433.93) eradication treatment (P <0.001). We conclude that our study suggests the correlation between vitamin B 12 deficiency in CKD patients and the HP infection status.
  3,363 438 -
Renal cortical necrosis in tropics
Manisha Sahay, Swarnalata , Meenakshi Swain, Michelle Padua
July-August 2013, 24(4):725-730
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.113864  PMID:23816721
The aim of this study is to review cases of renal cortical necrosis (RCN) that were seen on renal biopsy at our center over a period of seven years. All renal biopsy records over seven years at the Osmania General Hospital were reviewed to identify patients with histologically proven RCN. The demographic, clinical, laboratory investigations and follow-up data were noted. There were a total of 105 patients with RCN. The mean age was 28.13 ± 12.40 years. Forty-one cases (39.04%) resulted from obstetric complications. The most common histology type of RCN was patchy cortical necrosis in 65 patients (62%). All patients required dialysis, and the mean duration of dialysis was 3 ± 1 weeks. Thirty-three (31.42%) patients progressed to end-stage kidney disease while three patients underwent renal transplantation. Ten (9.5%) patients succumbed to acute kidney injury. The remaining patients recovered sufficient renal function and were dialysis-independent till the last follow-up. RCN is an important cause of chronic kidney disease. Obstetric complications are the leading cause of RCN in our setting. An early renal biopsy, especially in cases of anuric renal failure, helps in establishing the diagnosis.
  3,278 511 -
Impact of donor age on outcome of kidney transplantation from controlled donation after cardiac death
Jacob A Akoh, Tahawar A Rana
July-August 2013, 24(4):673-681
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.113846  PMID:23816713
Previous reports regarding donation after cardiac death (DCD) have called for caution in extending the age of kidney donors beyond 60 years due to the risk of poor graft function. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of donor age on renal transplantation from DCD in one center. All DCD transplants from 2005 to 2009 were included in the study. Immunosuppression and recipient follow-up were as per unit protocol. Donor and recipient details were entered prospectively into a renal database and analyzed for graft outcome. Of the 147 renal transplants, 102 were from donors <60 years old and 45 were from donors ≥60 years old. The incidence of delayed graft function varied significantly according to donor-recipient age groups (P = 0.01). The mean glomerular filtration rate at 12 months was 50.3 mL/min for transplants from young donors compared with 39.3 mL/min for transplants from old donors (P = 0.001). The cumulative graft survival rates at 1 and 5 years were 88% and 79% for young donors, while for old donors these were 78% and 72%, respectively (P = 0.101). By transplanting kidneys from old DCD donors into elderly patients, their survival is improved compared with dialysis, and organs from younger donors are made available for younger recipients.
  3,059 723 -
Immuno-histochemistry analysis of Helicobacter pylori antigen in renal biopsy specimens from patients with glomerulonephritis
Qian Li, Xi Lin, Zhongbiao Wu, Lihuan He, Weijun Wang, Qizhi Cao, Jianzhong Zhang
July-August 2013, 24(4):751-758
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.113871  PMID:23816725
This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and three varieties of glomerulonephritis. Renal biopsy specimens from patients with Henoch Schonlein Purpura nephritis (HSPN; n = 10), membranous nephropathy (MN; n = 9) and lupus nephritis (LN; n = 27) were studied using immuno-histochemical labeling to clarify the etiological significance of H. pylori antigen in this disease. Immuno-histochemical labeling was performed using a mixture of anti-H. pylori-antibody-positive serum from nine volunteers; a mixture of anti-H. pylori-antibody-negative serum from nine volunteers was used as control. Staphylococci protein-A labeled by horseradish peroxidase was used as the second antibody in this study. A total of 34 of the 48 specimens revealed positive reaction with the anti-H. pylori-positive serum and five of the 48 specimens revealed positive reaction with the anti-H. pylori-negative serum. Positive reaction against anti-H. pylori-positive serum was seen in 10/10 patients with HSPN, six of nine patients with MN and 18/27 patients with LN. Statistical analysis showed that the difference of the positive reaction between anti-H. pylori-positive and negative sera was significant (χ 2 = 36.318, P = 0.000). Our study indicates that H. pylori infection may be associated with the development and/or progression of HSPN, MN and LN.
  2,824 532 1
RENAL DATA FROM THE ARAB WORLD
Prevalence of patients with end-stage renal disease on dialysis in the West Bank, Palestine
Mohammed I Khader, Shehab Snouber, Abdallah Alkhatib, Zaher Nazzal, Anwar Dudin
July-August 2013, 24(4):832-837
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.113913  PMID:23816745
This study was conducted to determine the point prevalence of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on dialysis in the West Bank, Palestine. As part of this study, the following parameters were studied: District, gender, age and presumed cause. This cross-sectional study was undertaken during the period 26-30 December 2010 at all dialysis units in the West Bank, and included all cases of ESRD on dialysis. The total prevalence of patients with ESRD on dialysis during the study period was 240.3 per million population (PMP). The highest prevalence was seen in Jericho city. There were 57.7% males and 42.4% females in the study. The majority of patients (62.3%) were living in villages, while 28.8% were living in cities and 8.9% were living in refugee camps. Most of the patients (45%) were aged between 45 and 64 years. The vast majority of patients were either diabetic (22.5%) or hypertensive (11.1%) or both at the same time (10.6%). There were a considerable number of patients in whom the cause was undetermined (27.6%). The majority of recorded cases of congenital causes were from the Hebron, Jenin and Tubas districts. The prevalence of ESRD noted in our study is comparable with other regional countries but far below the rate recorded in industrialized countries. In the Palestinian territories, there is a general lack of national statistics and surveys, particularly in the public health section. Increased efforts and awareness should be focused on the prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus and hypertension as they are the main causes of ESRD. There should also be an additional enhancement and implementation of strategies for the registration of data in order to conduct periodic comparisons and analytical studies to improve the management and quality of life of ESRD patients.
  2,782 484 -
CASE REPORTS
Profound nephrotic syndrome in a patient with ovarian teratoma
Abdallah Jeroudi, Huseyin Kadikoy, Lillian Gaber, Venket Ramanathan, Adam Frome, Nabeel Anwar, Abdul Abdellatif
July-August 2013, 24(4):777-782
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.113883  PMID:23816730
The nephrotic syndrome (NS) has been associated with a variety of malignancies in a number of reports in the literature, but has been reported in only nine cases associated with ovarian neoplasms. Membranous nephropathy is the most common glomerular pathology causing the NS in patients with solid tumors. There has been only one report of an ovarian neoplasm associated with minimal change disease (MCD). We describe the case of a 36-year-old woman who presented with the NS secondary to biopsy-proven MCD, likely secondary to mature ovarian teratoma. Treatment by tumor removal and prednisone led to remission of the NS. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an ovarian teratoma and the second report of an ovarian neoplasm associated with MCD.
  2,828 359 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Comparative evaluation of fosinopril and herbal drug Dioscorea bulbifera in patients of diabetic nephropathy
RG Singh, M Rajak, B Ghosh, Usha , A Agrawal, GP Dubey
July-August 2013, 24(4):737-742
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.113866  PMID:23816723
Worldwide, diabetic nephropathy is one of the leading causes of end-stage renal failure. This hospital-based single-center prospective open-label randomized case-control interventional study was performed to evaluate and compare the native drug Dioscorea bulbifera with fosinopril in the management of diabetic nephropathy. Patients with diabetic nephropathy with proteinuria >500 mg/day or albuminuria >300 mg/ day, S Cr ≤2.5 mg/dL and hypertension controlled with a single drug were included into the study and were divided into three groups according to the interventional drugs that they were given; group A (n = 46) on fosinopril (5-40 mg/day), group B (n = 45) on Dioscorea bulbifera (500 mg BD) and group C (n = 46) on neither of these drugs. All necessary laboratory investigations needed to assess the effect of both the drugs were carried out. Patients were followed-up for six months. The study included 137 patients (M:F 2.61:1) with an age range of 19-76 years. At the sixth-month follow-up, a significant decrease in the systolic blood pressure was noted in all three groups whereas the diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly only in group B. There was significantly better control of both systolic and diastolic blood pressures in group B than in the other groups. Although fasting blood sugar was poorly controlled in the initial visit in all three groups, there was a significant decrease at the sixth-month follow-up in all three groups. Moreover, the decrease was significantly more pronounced in group B than in the other two groups. Low-density lipoprotein decreased significantly only in group B. Proteinuria, serum transforming growth factor-β, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein decreased in both group A and group B, more so in the latter, but the differences between the groups were not statistically significant. Importantly, proteinuria and serum IL-6 showed an increasing trend in group C. It can be concluded that Dioscorea bulbifera was more effective than fosinopril in controlling blood pressure, glycemia, cholesterolemia and inflammatory state in diabetic nephropathy. Both agents decreased proteinuria. However, creatinine clearance significantly decreased with both the drugs, more so with Dioscera, and thus further evaluation with a larger trial is needed.
  2,511 666 -
RENAL DATA FROM ASIA-AFRICA
Clinical analysis of hypertension in children: An urban Indian study
Sunil K Kota, Siva K Kota, Lalit K Meher, Jammula Sruti, Gayatri Kotni, Sandip Panda, Prabhas R Tripathy, Kirtikumar Modi
July-August 2013, 24(4):844-852
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.113919  PMID:23816747
Hypertension in children, although an uncommon entity, is associated with end-organ damage. We tried to study the clinical profile of hypertension in children presented to our hospital. The medical records from January 1990 to December 2010 of all children aged 18 years and younger with hypertension were studied. The patients were divided into four age groups (infants, pre-school age, school age and adolescents) Presenting symptoms and other clinical parameters were thoroughly evaluated. The results were compared with previous studies on hypertension in children. A total of 135 patients were selected (male:female 103:32), with mean age of 0.4 ± 2.1 years (range: six months to 17 years). The most common age group affected was the adolescents group (42.9%). The most common clinical feature at presentation was dizziness (30.3%), followed by headache and chest discomfort (22.9%). Transient hypertension was detected in 34 patients (25.2%), and was most common in the adolescent age group, whereas sustained hypertension was noticed in 101 patients (74.8%) and was the most common in the school age group (36/45, 80%). Forty-two patients (31.1%) presented with hypertensive crisis. Nine patients were considered to have essential hypertension. The chief causes included chronic glomerulonephritis in 56 (41.5%), endocrine disorders in 21 (15.5%), obstructive uropathy in 16 (11.8%), reflux nephropathy in 12 (8.8%) and renovascular disease in 5 (3.7%). Takayasu's disease was the most common cause of renovascular hypertension. Coarctation of aorta was the most common cause of hypertension in infancy, being present in 40% of the cases. Hypertension in children may be easily underestimated but is a potentially life-threatening problem. Most of them are asymptomatic and a large chunk has an underlying etiology. Primary care clinicians should promptly identify patients with hypertension and treat them immediately and appropriately to prevent damage to the cardiovascular organs.
  2,595 535 -
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Geophagia masquerading as urolithiasis
Anuruddha M Abeygunasekera, Gamini Jayawardena, P. H. C. Jayathilake
July-August 2013, 24(4):798-799
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.113895  PMID:23816735
  2,844 204 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Tumor necrosis factor-alfa and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 gene polymorphisms in kidney transplant recipients
Ebtesam M El-Gezawy, Eman Nasr Eldin, Wafaa S Mohamed, Maged S Mahmoud, Seham Ahmed Saied, Hanan Hareth Abd El-Latif, Maha Atwa Ibrahim
July-August 2013, 24(4):688-695
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.113855  PMID:23816715
Tumor necrosis factor-alfa (TNF-α) gene polymorphism is supposed to have a significant influence on the incidence of acute rejection in renal transplantation. The monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is another factor supposed to modulate graft rejection. We studied TNF-α and MCP-1 gene polymorphisms in 84 kidney allograft recipients with polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism and their serum levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The patients were classified into two groups based on their outcomes: Group I (n = 47) recipients with stable graft function as the control group and group II (n=37) recipients who experienced acute graft rejection episodes in the first 30 days post-transplantation. A significantly higher incidence of TNF 2 /TNF 2 genotype was observed among patients with acute graft rejection in comparison with the control group (40.5% and 19.2% respectively, P <0.05), while no statistically significant differences were observed in the TNF 1 /TNF 1 genotype between the groups (59.4% and 80.8%, respectively, P >0.05). A significant elevation of serum TNF-α levels was found in group II than group I and between TNF 2 genotype compared with that of TNF1 genotype within group II recipients. Distribution of MCP-1 genotypes in patients with and without acute rejection episodes was not significantly different (70.2% and 76.6% for MCP-1 A/A and 29.7% and 23.4% for MCP-1 G/G, respectively, P >0.05). The serum MCP-1 levels were not significantly different between the groups and between MCP-1 G/G genotype and MCP-1 A/A genotype in group II recipients. In conclusion, TNF-α gene polymorphism or its serum levels may identify patients at risk of acute rejection, where patients with TNF 2 /TNF 2 genotype or high serum TNF-α levels are more likely to have acute rejection episodes, while there was no relation between MCP-1 genotype or its serum levels and acute rejection.
  2,550 449 3
CASE REPORTS
Renal cell carcinoma presenting as mandibular metastasis
Hassan Ahmadnia, Negar Mokhtari Amirmajdi, Ehsan Mansourian
July-August 2013, 24(4):789-792
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.113889  PMID:23816732
Renal clear cell carcinoma (RCC) has different manifestations, including uncommon metastasis and paraneoplastic syndromes. Here we report a rare case of RCC presenting as metastasis to the mandible. A 57-year-old patient with mandibular swelling was referred to the dentist. After necessary evaluations, an incisional biopsy of mandible showed metastatic RCC. The patient was referred to the urologist. The patient underwent right radical nephrectomy. Pathological examination showed clear renal cell carcinoma. Every abnormal bone lesion in the oral cavity should be evaluated carefully and the possibility of a malignant lesion should always be considered.
  2,564 430 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Outcomes following renal transplantation in patients with chronic hepatitis C based on severity of fibrosis on pre-transplant liver biopsy
Nader Dbouk, Samir Parekh
July-August 2013, 24(4):682-687
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.113847  PMID:23816714
Data regarding long-term outcomes following renal transplantation in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have been controversial. Our aim was to determine whether there is a difference in outcomes between patients with HCV and more advanced fibrosis on pretransplant biopsy and those with minimal or no fibrosis. Patients were divided according to the severity of fibrosis and their outcomes (including acute rejection, chronic rejection, re-initiation of dialysis, progression of liver disease and mortality) were compared. Thirty-one patients with minimal or no fibrosis (Scheuer stages 0 and 1: Group-A) and 10 patients with more advanced fibrosis (Scheuer stages 2 and 3: Group-B) were included in the final data analysis. Acute rejection occurred in 29% (9/31) of the patients with minimal and 30% (3/10) of the patients with advanced fibrosis (P = 0.95), while chronic allograft nephropathy occurred in 6.5% (2/31) of the patients without and 50% (5/10) of the patients with fibrosis (P = 0.006). None of the patients without fibrosis required re-initiation of dialysis compared with 50% (5/10) of the patients with fibrosis (P <0.05). Median graft survival was 46 months and 18 months for patients with minimal and advanced fibrosis, respectively. There were four deaths among patients with advanced and three deaths among patients with minimal fibrosis (P = 0.04). Our data suggests that patients with chronic HCV and more advanced fibrosis on liver biopsy who undergo a renal transplant have a higher incidence of chronic rejection, graft failure and mortality following renal transplant compared with those with minimal fibrosis.
  1,943 496 -
The use of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis for patients with end-stage renal disease and pre-existing advanced liver disease
Anupma Kaul, RK Sharma, Amit Gupta, Narayan Prasad
July-August 2013, 24(4):719-724
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.113863  PMID:23816720
End-stage renal disease (ESRD) associated with pre-existing advanced liver disease (ALD) has increased the risk of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study is to assess the outcome following the use of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) in ESRD patients with ALD. A retrospective case-controlled study was performed on 16 patients with ALD and ESRD (ESRD-ALD) and 27 control patients with ESRD but without liver disease (ESRD); both groups were started on CAPD during the same period. No major complications were observed in either group in the immediate post-surgical period and, after an average break in period of 11.3 days, the cases and controls were started on regular CAPD. The average duration of follow-up was 8 ± 2.3 months in the ESRD-ALD group compared with 20 ± 1.3 months in the ESRD group. The overall peritonitis rates were 1.26/treatment year in the ESRD-ALD group and 0.63 in the ESRD group. The 6- and 12-month survivals among ESRD-ALD patients were 63.75% and 38.75%, respectively. Patients with ESRD-ALD had significantly lower baseline serum protein and albumin levels at the time of initiation of CAPD. On follow-up, the hemoglobin levels improved in both the groups along with an improvement in the serum protein and albumin levels. Fourteen of the 16 ESRD-ALD patients died at the end of the 3-year follow-up period; deaths were due to terminal liver failure in nine patients and peritonitis in five patients. Patients who died in the ESRD-ALD group had lower serum albumin, lower body mass index (BMI) (median BMI 18.2 vs. 25.6) and higher grades of liver disease [child Pugh grade B (8), grade C (6) vs. grade B (2)] at initiation of CAPD. Our study suggests that CAPD is a safe modality in patients with ESRD-ALD and that it does not carry any major risk for bleeding tendencies, technique failure or worsening of nutritional status. Low serum albumin, lower BMI and higher grade of liver disease at initiation are associated with higher mortality in these patients.
  1,961 467 -
Urinary endothellin-1 level in children with pyelonephritis and hydronephrosis
Mostafa Sharifian, Mitra Ahmadi, Abdollah Karimi, Ranna Esmaili Zand, Roozbeh Moghadar, Roya Ahmadi, Masoud Dadkhah Chimeh
July-August 2013, 24(4):731-736
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.113865  PMID:23816722
Hydronephrosis is a common finding in patients with urinary tract infection (UTI). Endothellin-1 (ET-1) is a potent vasoactive peptide that has vasoconstrictive effects. It has been shown that urinary ET-1 increases in urinary obstructions. In this study, we measured the urinary ET-1 level in patients with UTI and hydronephrosis of various causes. In this case-control study, we evaluated the urinary ET-1 level in 45 patients who had UTI and hydronephrosis, serving as a case group, and 45 patients who had UTI without hydronephrosis, serving as a control group. Urinary ET-1 was quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and urinary creatinine (Cr) by Jaffe method. To rule out the effect of urinary flow rate, the urinary ET-1 to Cr correlation was considered for analysis of the results. The mean age of the patients in the case and control groups was 36.5 ± 27.2 and 26.2 ± 15.5 months, respectively (P >0.01). The mean urinary ET-1 was 89.6 ± 41.7 pg/dL in the case group and 29.3 ± 26 pg/dL in the control group, P <0.001. The mean urinary ET-1 was 121 ± 55.4 pg/dL in patients who had grade 4 hydronephrosis. We conclude that urinary ET-1 was significantly higher in the obstructed than in non-obstructed cases. Urinary ET-1 could be a useful marker that can be utilized in young children for diagnosis of hydronephrosis, especially obstructive cases.
  2,027 354 2
Sleep quality assessment using polysomnography in children on regular hemodialysis
Ahmed M El-Refaey, Riad M ElSayed, Amr Sarhan, Ashraf Bakr, Ayman Hammad, Atef Elmougy, Ahmed Y Aboelyazeed
July-August 2013, 24(4):714-718
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.113862  PMID:23816719
Studies examining sleep patterns in children on hemodialysis (HD) are lacking. This cross-sectional, control-matched group study was performed to assess the sleep quality in children on HD. The assessment was made using a subjective sleep assessment and sleep questionnaire and objective analysis was made using full night polysomnography. A total of 25 children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on HD were compared with 15 age- and sex-matched controls. The average age of the cases was 14 ± 4 years, 52% were males and the mean body mass index was 20 ± 3.8 kg/m². The average duration on dialysis was 2.6 ± 2 years. Analysis of subjective data revealed markedly affected sleep quality in HD patients, as evidenced by excessive day time sleepiness (P <0.005), night awakening (P <0.005), difficult morning arousal (P <0.005) and limb pains (P <0.005). Objective analysis showed differences in sleep architecture, less slow wave sleep in HD children, similar rapid eye movement and non-rapid eye movement, more sleep disordered breathing (P <0.0001) and more periodic limb movement disorders (P <0.0001). Our study suggests that children on regular HD have markedly affected objective as well as subjective quality of sleep.
  1,951 408 -
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Bilateral pyonephrosis and end-stage renal disease secondary to pelvic organ prolapse
Naser Sabah Hussein, Mohd Nor G Rahman, Usama N Rifat
July-August 2013, 24(4):810-812
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.113902  PMID:23816739
  1,885 264 -
The magnitude of chronic kidney diseases among primary health care attendees in Gezira state, Sudan
Mohamed Elhafiz Elsharif, Sana Mohammed Abdullha, Sahar Mamoun Abdalla, Elham Garib AllaElsharif
July-August 2013, 24(4):807-809
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.113900  PMID:23816738
  1,754 255 -
CASE REPORTS
Rhino-orbitocerebral mucormycosis in a patient with idiopathic crescentic glomerulonephritis
Suzan Sanavi, Reza Afshar, Siamak Afshin-Majd
July-August 2013, 24(4):768-772
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.113878  PMID:23816728
Mucormycosis, caused by mucorales, is an acute, rapidly progressive infection associated with high mortality. Rhino-orbitocerebral infection is the most common variant and is generally seen in association with immune deficiency syndromes. Prompt medical treatment of this infection and debridement decreases the mortality rate. We describe a 47-year-old man with crescentic glomerulonephritis on maintenance prednisolone therapy. He had earlier received steroid and cyclophosphamide pulse therapies. Renal functions improved following immunosuppressive treatment. In the third month of maintenance therapy, he presented to us with left-sided facial swelling and bloody nasal discharge. He had high blood sugar and acidic blood pH (ketoacidosis), probably due to steroid therapy. Magnetic resonance imaging of the head and sinuses showed inflammation and mass in the ethmoid sinus and nose with partial septal destruction, proptosis, global destruction of the left eye, brain infarction and carotid artery obliteration. Endoscopic biopsy of the sinuses revealed severe tissue necrosis. Samples of nasal discharge and biopsy tissue showed aseptate hyphae on light microscopy and culture, compatible with Rhizopus. The patient was treated with amphotericin B and multiple wound debridements along with ethmoidectomy and enucleation of the left eye. He was discharged in good general condition but with mild right hemiparesis. On follow-up examination at one year, there were no signs of fungal infection or renal dysfunction.
  1,698 303 -
Esophageal histoplasmosis in a renal allograft recipient
LC Sharma, J Falodia, K Kalla, M Kalla, JB Gupta, SS Gupta, P Beniwal, MN Singh, V Malhotra, D Agarwal
July-August 2013, 24(4):764-767
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.113874  PMID:23816727
Histoplasmosis is a progressive granulomatous disease caused by the intracellular dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. We report a rare case of esophageal histoplasmosis in a renal allograft recipient. A 55-year-old male who received a live, unrelated renal allograft 20 years ago presented with complaints of recurrent fever for ten to 12 months, weight loss over six months, progressive dysphagia more for solids for five to six months and joint pain and swelling involving the bilateral metacarpo-phalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints. Biopsy from the esophageal ulcers revealed dense inflammation infiltrated with lymphocytes and macrophages with clusters of strongly positive intracellular fungal spores with a clear area or "halo-like" zone suggestive of Histoplasma capsulatum invasion. The patient was treated with intravenous liposomal amphotericin B for ten days and later switched over to oral itraconazole. Repeated endoscopy revealed significant improvement of the lesions.
  1,664 302 1
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Renal transplantation in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
Kamal V Kanodia, Aruna V Vanikar, Pankaj R Shah, HL Trivedi
July-August 2013, 24(4):793-794
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.113890  PMID:23816733
  1,625 317 -
RENAL DATA FROM THE ARAB WORLD
Effect of relative hypoparathyroidism on the responsiveness to recombinant human erythropoietin in chronic hemodialysis patients: A single Saudi center experience
Khalid Al Saran, Alaa Sabry, Ashraf H Hassan
July-August 2013, 24(4):825-831
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.113911  PMID:23816744
Anemia is a common concomitant disorder in dialysis patients. The responsiveness to recombinant human erythropoietin in hemodialysis (HD) patients with relative hypoparathyroidism [4 ≤ intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) ≤16.5 pmol/L] remains undetermined. We retrospectively studied 70 chronic hemodialysis patients who were divided into two groups: Group A (32 patients) had 16.5 ≤ iPTH levels <33.5 pmol/L and Group B (38 patients) had 4 ≥ iPTH≤16.5 pmol/L during the preceding six months without 1- (OH) Vitamin D3 administration. The percentage of female gender was significantly higher in Group B compared with Group A (P = 0.018). In Groups A and B, the mean weekly recombinant human erythropoietin dose (U/kg/ week) was 227.96 ± 95.24 vs. 154.1 ± 84.9 (P = 0.001) and the mean hemoglobin level was 11.15 ± 0.63 g/dL versus 11.62 ± 0.63 g/dL (P = 0.008). There was no significant statistical difference regarding the other biochemical markers (serum ferritin, iron saturation, serum Ca, serum alkaline phosphatase, C-reactive protein, serum B12, serum folate levels, residual renal function and Kt/v) between the groups. If other factors related to anemia are excluded in chronic HD patients, the lower the iPTH level (relative hypoparathyroidism) the better the responsiveness to recombinant human erythropoietin.
  1,580 336 -
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Renal transplantation in obese patients
Alp Gurkan, Serdar Kacar, Can Varilsuha, Volkan Turunc, Hamad Dheir, Sevgi Sahin, Alp Gurkan, Serdar Kacar, Can Varilsuha, Volkan Turunc, Hamad Dheir, Sevgi Sahin
July-August 2013, 24(4):795-797
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.113893  PMID:23816734
  1,527 325 1
Accountable kidney care: Role of telemedicine in a developing country
Gangadhar Taduri, Sheshadri Billa, Sharath Nagachandra Varaprasad, Satyanarayana Nimma, Dakshinamurty Kaligotla Venkata
July-August 2013, 24(4):818-821
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.113906  PMID:23816742
  1,548 300 -
Clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with acute kidney injury: A single-center study
Nadeeka Rathnamalala
July-August 2013, 24(4):813-815
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.113903  PMID:23816740
  1,250 269 -
A clinicopathological study of renal biopsies in glomerular diseases
Abdul Hakeem Attar, Meena Narayan Jadhav, Begum Zeenath, Ravindra Madraki, Balasaheb Ramling Yelikar
July-August 2013, 24(4):800-804
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.113897  PMID:23816736
  1,279 221 -
Histomorphological classification of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis: A critical evaluation of the clinical, histologic and morphometric features
Muhammed Mubarak
July-August 2013, 24(4):822-823
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.113908  PMID:23816743
  1,190 237 -
SCOT DATA
Dialysis in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

July-August 2013, 24(4):853-861
  1,071 213 -
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Narrowing the margins of errors intrinsic to the estimations made from uacr and upcr by introducing simple correction factors
Nasrulla Abutaleb
July-August 2013, 24(4):805-806
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.113899  PMID:23816737
  1,097 175 -
Authors' reply
Amit K Dinda
July-August 2013, 24(4):823-824
DOI:10.4103/1319-2442.113909  
  843 153 -
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